Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder)

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1955 Article


Map 1: Hutterite Bruderhofs in Moravia, Slovakia & Transylvania.
Source: Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 858.

The Hutterian Brethren, also called Hutterites, the Austrian branch of the great Anabaptist movement of the 16th century, was characterized by the practice of community of goods, as first established in Moravia in 1529 and re-established on more solid grounds by Jakob Hutter in 1533. In contradistinction to the other Anabaptist groups the Hutterites had the unique chance to develop their communal life in comparatively peaceful Moravia where, due to a predominantly Slavic surrounding, they lived in relative isolation from the rest of the world. Thus a rich group life developed with a strong sense for their own history. Remarkable is also their extensive manuscript literature (devotional and historical) which made it possible that their teachings and their history, particularly of the beginnings, should become better known than those of any other group of the Anabaptist movement except the Dutch.

Early Development

The 1520s saw a lively spread of Anabaptism throughout the Hapsburg territories, Tyrol, Austria, Carinthia, etc. In Tyrol in particular Anabaptism was by far the strongest trend, and remained so until far into the second half of the 16th century, in spite of a government which ruthlessly fought all "heretics" wherever they could be ferreted out. It was here that Georg Blaurock of Switzerland worked successfully as a missioner until his early martyrdom in 1529. Persecutions were extremely bloody. One source (Kirchmaier, 487) claimed that prior to 1530 no less than one thousand had been executed, and that the stakes were burning all along the Inn Valley. Yet the number of Anabaptists only grew. Soon the news became known that Moravia (and in particular the manorial estate Nikolsburg of the lords of Liechtenstein) was a haven for all sectarians. Here Hubmaier could freely write and print his new ideas concerning adult baptism. In fact, one of the Liechtensteins himself accepted baptism upon faith. Also other manorial lords showed sympathy and toleration, perhaps due to the fact that this country had seen the Hussites (now called Piccards) for nearly a century, and allowed complete freedom of conscience to practically all sorts of beliefs. Naturally from then on a continuous stream of Anabaptists moved toward this "promised land," from Tyrol as well as from other Hapsburg lands, but also from South Germany, Bavaria, Württemberg, Hesse, and even from Switzerland.

Map 2: Hutterite Bruderhofs in Moravia, 1530-1622.
Source: Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 860

In 1528 the nonresistant group, called "Stäbler" (staff-bearers), moved away from Nikolsburg, then the center of the opposing group, the "Schwertler" (sword-bearers, the Hubmaier followers), who, however, soon died out. Compelled by the emergency situation, the need of taking care of the many indigent brethren, they pooled all their possessions and money in the manner of the first church in Jerusalem. But this act was at first not understood as a definite step toward complete community of goods comprising both consumption and production. This development came but slowly step by step. The first leader was Jacob Wiedemann, the "one-eyed one"; later leaders were Siegmund Schützinger, Jörg Zaunring, and Gabriel Ascherham (for details see Moravia, Nikolsburg, also Auspitz and Austerlitz). The groups around 1529-1533 lived by no means in brotherly harmony; local quarrels over leadership and form of community-life marred these first years in Moravia. Jakob Hutter, an Anabaptist from Tyrol who had visited the Moravian brotherhoods in 1529, and who worried much about these conditions, first sent his emissary, Jörg Zaunring, but eventually decided to leave Tyrol and to try for himself to settle these disputes and rivalries, and to establish more evangelical foundations. Details of this intricate story cannot be told here, but it soon became obvious that Hutter was by far the strongest leader of all. In 1533 the evangelical (nonresistant) Anabaptists of Moravia broke up into three groups: (a) Those who accepted Jacob Hutter's leadership and (according to his organization) complete community of goods, called themselves from now on Hutterische Brüder. Hutter, himself a very strong prophetic and charismatic leader, had given to this group such definite foundations that it could survive and, in spite of many ups and downs, preserve its basic principles through more than four centuries, (b) The Philippites, named after Philipp Plener or Blauärmel, a Württemberger, This group left Moravia already in 1535 during the first bitter days of persecution. They returned through Austria to South Germany. On their way many were imprisoned in Passau (see Ausbund), while others decided to stay in Upper Austria where still in the 1530s Peter Riedemann visited them and managed eventually a merger with the Hutterian Brethren. This group stressed the suffering church in particular and with it Gelassenheit (see also Hans Haffner). (c) The Gabrielites, named after Gabriel Ascherham. They, too, soon moved out of Moravia back to Silesia, Ascherham's home country. But soon they became disappointed with their leader, who tended more and more toward a vague spiritualism. Between 1542 and 1545 most of these Gabrielites returned and likewise merged with the Hutterites. (The doctrinal basis for this is contained in a document inserted in the Geschicht-Buch, Wolkan, 197-200, "Der Gabrieler Vereinigung mit uns.")

Other groups of evangelical Anabaptists in Moravia who did not accept community of goods were given the general name "Swiss Brethren," even though they did not come from Switzerland. Also a small group of followers of Pilgram Marpeck were found in Southern Moravia under the leadership of Leopold Scharnschlager. Yet these groups later disappeared, while the Hutterian Brethren managed to maintain themselves through all early hardships and local persecutions.

Hutterite family as illustrated in Erhard's 1588 Historia.
Scan courtesy Mennonite Church USA Archives-Goshen X-31.1, Box 17/30

This may have been due to a large extent to a remarkable number of outstanding leaders: Ulrich Stadler of Tyrol, Hans Amon of Bavaria, Peter Riedemann of Silesia, Peter Walpot of Tyrol, Klaus Braidl of Hesse, not to mention the long array of other brethren, most of whom died as martyrs or suffered long years of imprisonment. Although "expelled" from Moravia more than once upon mandates by Ferdinand (the later emperor), they yet somehow succeeded in finding the sympathy of the manorial lords, who quickly recognized their value as craftsmen and tillers of the soil. Many of these lords were either Protestants or at least in sympathy with the Reformation, and proud of their quasi-independence from the government in Vienna. And thus Moravia remained the one stable place in this century of intolerance and suffering. In 1546 the Brethren also moved east across the border into adjacent Slovakia (then a part of Hungary) where the influence of the Hapsburgs was still weaker, and where a good many of the lords belonged to the Reformed faith.

Jakob Hutter was a leader for only two years (1533-1535); he returned to Tyrol where eventually he too fell into the hands of his persecutors. In February 1536 he was martyred. Hans Amon thereupon became the Vorsteher or head bishop of the brotherhood, 1536-1542, being a strong and inspiring leader. In this time organized missionary activities of the brethren set in, perhaps the first such in all of Europe. Missioners (Sendboten) were sent out to many places (knowing quite well the fate ahead of them; 80 per cent of them died a martyr's death), and those in the throes of death were comforted by epistles and visiting brethren (e.g., the case of the 140 Falkenstein Brethren who were sent to Trieste to become galley slaves, 1539-1540). One of the strongest missioners of this time was Peter Riedemann, who went more than once to Upper Austria and to Hesse. While in jail in Hesse (1540-1542), he drew up that outstanding document which from now on became the very symbolic book of the brotherhood, the Account of Our Religion (Rechenschaft) 1540 (printed 1565, and again in the 19th and 20th century). In 1542-1556 he shared the leadership of the brotherhood with Leonhard Lanzenstiel or Seiler.

Map 3: Hutterite Bruderhofs in Slovakia
Source: Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 861

The Golden Period

While elsewhere persecution intensified (Anabaptism had died out by the middle of the 16th century in the Hapsburg domain except Tyrol; it declined in Bavaria and other German lands), in Moravia on the contrary it experienced now a kind of flowering. This was particularly true during the reign of Emperor Maximilian II (1564-1576), himself rather in sympathy with Protestantism, hence averse to any harsh measures. The Brethren speak of the "Good Period" (about 1554-1565) and of the "Golden Period" (1565-1590 or 95). Although the Jesuits had been admitted in Hapsburg territories since about 1550-1560, they did not find full influence in Moravia until the end of the century. It is true that Nikolsburg had changed hands; the Dietrichsteins bought it in 1575, but even though they were more in sympathy with the Counter-Reformation, the Brethren could still persist here, too, relatively peacefully, until the coming of the Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein in 1599, the very head of the Catholic party.

Map 4: Hutterite Bruderhofs in Ukraine, 1770-1874
Source: Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 861

During the Golden Period the Brethren, now well established all over southern Moravia and Slovakia, found a particularly strong leader in Peter Walpot, a Tyrolean, who led the group in 1565-1578, and whose activities added much to further consolidate the brotherhood. A number of regulations were drawn up, both for the general conduct of the brotherhood and for the different crafts or trades. The schools of the Brethren were organized on better defined grounds. Doctrinal and polemic writings (mostly anonymous) were drawn up (such as the great Article Book, the Handbüchlein, the book called Anschlag und Fürwenden, etc.). A rich correspondence with missionaries all over the countries of German tongue came in and went out (carefully recorded in a Schreibstube or scriptorium); the great Geschicht-Buch was then begun by Kaspar Braitmichel on the basis of archival material collected almost from the very beginning. In short, it was the peak of Hutterite history. It has been estimated that in Moravia and Slovakia together there existed at that time about one hundred Bruderhofs or farm colonies, with a population estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000. (Certain estimates go as high as 70,000, but that figure is most unlikely.) (See the accompanying maps.) While Anabaptism elsewhere (except for the Netherlands and Prussia) was on a sharp decline, in fact nearly disappeared as an articulated movement in the latter half of the 16th century, in remote Moravia and Slovakia it was almost on its way to becoming a distinct denomination (were it not that the sect-principle, that is, brotherhood-living, continued to be dominant).

Very remarkable of that time were also contacts with the antitrinitarian Polish Brethren (Socinians) who in Racov (Poland) tried to set up their "New Jerusalem" (see Antitrinitarianism), somewhat along lines which they had been studying at the Moravian Hutterite communistic colonies. Visitors and correspondence witness to this contact which, however, never became very warm, due to basic differences both in doctrine and intellectual background.

Contacts with Swiss Brethren, in Switzerland and elsewhere, continued to be intensive; missioners were sent out and a good number of Brethren from Switzerland and South Germany joined the church in Moravia. (The later bishop Ulrich Jausling, serving 1619-1621, had been such a Swiss newcomer.) Of particular interest was here a long letter (almost a tract) which the Vorsteher Klaus Braidl sent to a Swiss brother Christian Raussenberger in 1601 defending on Biblical ground the principle of community of goods. Also with the Prussian Mennonites around Elbing and Danzig contacts were obtained around the turn of the century. Even a settlement was attempted in Elbing though without success. In the meantime the peaceful period had come to an end, and severe trials were in store. (a) The Counter-Reformation became now the cry of the day. Whoever would not be converted to the Roman Church was to leave Moravia. Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein gave the lead in that movement, supported by a most vigilant government in Vienna and two priests, Christoph Erhard and Christoph Andreas Fischer, in southern Moravia, who supplied the Catholics with polemic material (gross slanders), and cast suspicions of all kinds. They incited the hatred of the poor peasant population all around who naturally could not compete with large-scale rational farm economies (see Eysvogel and Jedelshauser). In short the situation became ever more precarious. Yet until 1622 they somehow managed to come through, although on a declining scale, (b) Turkish wars and invasions added to these internal troubles. Emperor Rudolph II asked for war contributions, and Dietrichstein was to extort them from the Brethren (at one time no less than 20,000 fl. was asked). Needless to say, the Brethren very decidedly declined, accepting all the consequences. In 1605 Turks and their Hungarian allies plundered southern Moravia and many brethren were killed or dragged away into Turkish captivity (see Böger). Eventually (c) the event, later called the Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648, brought the Moravian establishments of the Brethren to a complete end. After the success of the Catholic forces at the White Mountain in 1620, all restraint was dropped; complete expulsion was ordered by Vienna. The Geschicht-Buch (570-571) reported that what they lost in inventory (corn, wine, cattle, linen and woolens, groceries, equipment, and furniture) amounted to about 364,000 florins not assessing any houses and grounds. And all this after only one year earlier (1621) a sum of 30,000 fl. had been taken away from the Brethren by methods of extortion and downright robbery.

Map 5: Hutterite Colonies in Manitoba & the Dakotas, 1950s.
Source: Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 863
Map 6: Hutterite Colonies in Alberta & Montana, 1950s.
Mennonite Encyclopedia, v. 2, p. 864

Leadership of Andreas Ehrenpreis

With these events the brotherhood begins to show a sharp decline in activities and also in loyalty to the old principles, and even in number of members and colonies (in Slovakia there were only 15 colonies). Although Moravia was now lost, the Brethren could still withdraw to their Slovakian colonies, and after 1621 also to their new Bruderhof in Alvinc, Transylvania (today Rumania). In spite of continued great hardships, mainly through Turkish marauders, the Brethren carried on, and visitors were amazed by their industriousness and diligence (see Grimmelshausen). The brotherhood was fortunate enough in getting once more a bishop of outstanding qualities in leadership and spirituality, viz., Andreas Ehrenpreis, 1639-1662, the real leader already since 1630. He was born in a Moravian colony. His work was an effort to revive the brotherhood in many regards: the last mission work in Silesia (contacts with Schwenkfeldians) and Danzig (the Socinians were contacted) was carried out, although with rather moderate success. A short-lived colony was established in Mannheim in 1664. Internal discipline was re-established by strict regulations (see Gemeindeordnungen). And a rich literature was produced. Of particular value for posterity was also the new custom of writing down all sermons (called Lehr und Vorred). The amount of such manuscript material is amazing; there were about 250 such Lehren (some quite voluminous books about most books of the New Testament, and many of the Old Testament, mainly prophets, psalms, also about many apocryphal books and pseudepigrapha), and about as many Vorreden (shorter sermons). The Klein-Geschichtsbueh (204-221) brought excerpts from these sermons. One may safely say that the Hutterian Brethren of the mid-20th century continued the Ehrenpreis tradition at least as much if not more than any earlier tradition (e.g., that of Jakob Hutter). Ehrenpreis' Gemeinde Ordnung of 1651 was still in use, and the sermons of that period were the backbone of all spiritual life of the brethren in the 20th century.

Persecution of the 18th Century

After Ehrenpreis' death more tribulations made life in community of goods harder and harder until this core element of the Hutterites was partly abandoned, and a semiprivate or semicooperative form of economy was accepted (1685, 1695). The great misery of Turkish invasions with its looting (which the nonviolent Brethren could not stop in any way) impoverished the brotherhood to such an extent that they had to turn to their Dutch Mennonite "cousins" to ask for financial help. The Great Chronicle ends with the letter which Johann Riecker, the successor of Ehrenpreis, wrote to the "Gemeinden in Holland," 20 April 1665. It is known that the Doopsgezinde most generously responded (Inv. Arch. Amst. II, 419, a letter of thanks). Yet also this help could not prevent further troubles.

After the defeat of the Turks before Vienna (1683) and their expulsion from Hungary (1700), the Hapsburg government gained strength also in this newly conquered territory. And even though the 18th century was known as one of religious toleration, it was not the same for Hungary. Empress Maria Theresa (1740-1780) allowed the otherwise forbidden Jesuits to exert all means to convert non-Catholics back to the Roman Church. And what torture, dungeon, and executioners could not achieve in the 16th century, the Jesuits achieved, at least partly, in the 18th, mainly in Slovakia. Their old manuscript books were confiscated (1757-1763, 1782-1784); children were taken away from their parents; and the more important male members were put into monasteries until they either accepted instructions and were converted, or until they died. Catholic services were established at the Bruderhofs and every one was compelled to attend. In short, externally the Hutterite population now turned Catholic, although in secret they continued to practice their old beliefs, likewise maintaining their cooperative enterprises. From then on the nickname Habaner became the general name for these people.

Immigration to Russia

In Transylvania the Brethren had dwindled to scarcely more than a small group of perhaps 30 or 40 souls. Then Lutheran transmigrants from Carinthia to Transylvania (they arrived in 1756) came into contact with this remnant of Hutterite life, and felt immediately attracted by this form of Christian communism. They now joined the brotherhood, and thus brought about a rejuvenation of and rededication to the old principles. Naturally, persecutions, mainly by Jesuits, quickly set in here too. After a number of attempts to find other places the Brethren finally decided to flee Transylvania (1767, after a stay of 146 years), across high mountain passes almost without trails, and to enter Walachia (now Romania) where conditions looked favorable. Another Turkish War (against Russia) again brought hardships, and the great trek continued after three years. In 1770 at the Dniester River the Brethren were received by the Russian general Count Rumyantsev, who offered them an asylum on his own estate in the Ukraine (then a rather sparsely populated area). At Vyshenka the Brethren finally settled down for about one generation. In 1802 the colony was transferred to Czarist crown land at Radichev, 10 miles north. It was Johannes Waldner (born in Carinthia) who was then the most outstanding Vorsteher of the brotherhood (1794-1824). It was he who between 1793 and 1802 wrote the second big chronicle of the Hutterites, the Klein-Geschichtsbuch, a work of great charm and refinement. J. Loserth called Waldner a genuine historian. He was also a genuine disciple of Jakob Hutter, who with all his strength opposed the threatening abandonment of the principle of community of goods, which one group under the leadership of Jacob Walter (formerly of Slovakia) carried out in 1818. This new Walter-group then settled down in southern Russia (Molotschna district, under the sponsorship of the Mennonite Johann Cornies), where for about 40 years it practiced private property. In 1859-60 some leader dared to re-establish communal life as of old, and soon the new Hutterite villages began to thrive. Then in 1870, universal military conscription in Russia brought an end to all former privileges, and the Brethren saw no other way out than again to migrate -- in this case to immigrate to America.

Immigration to America

The story of this migration is too long to be retold here in detail. After a trip of inspection and scouting (1873), all the Brethren decided to come to the United States, where they chose the prairie land of the Dakota Territory that later became the state of South Dakota for settlement (in scenery so similar to the steppe of Russia). They arrived in 1874, 1877, and 1879. About one third, approximately 400 people, chose settling down in complete community of goods in three colonies near Yankton. According to these three settlements they are still today divided into the Darius-Leut (named after Darius Walter, their leader), Schmiede-Leut (after Michael Waldner, a blacksmith, their leader), and Lehrer-Leut (named after Jacob Wipf, a teacher called the Lehrer). The last group, when still in Russia, did not practice community of goods but began to do so in South Dakota. The other two thirds of the Brethren chose to settle close together on individual farms and in time became known as Prairieleut Hutterite Brethren. They also settled in the Dakota Territory. The Prairieleut formed their own congregations and in time most of these congregations joined the Krimmer Mennonite Brethren or the General Conference Mennonites.

The colonies soon grew again under the favorable conditions of American democracy and its freedom, until new suffering occurred during World War I. Then super-patriots could not understand the nonresistant attitude of these Anabaptists, and a great number of young Hutterite conscientious objectors went through almost unbelievable hardships in federal prisons. Two men died there on account of exposure and privations. At that point the Brethren decided to move on to Canada where exemption from military service was granted. They located in southern Alberta, and south central Manitoba. However, one colony, the original one at Bonhomme, remained in South Dakota, and several new ones have been re-established there, while others were established in north central Montana from Alberta. The American federal government treated Prairieleut Hutterite Brethren in a similar manner with discrimination, harassment, and imprisonment for a few. A number of Prairieleut families also fled to Canada.

In 1930, Eberhard Arnold, who had founded a community in Germany, spent a year among the Hutterian colonies and joined his group with the older movement. Bruderhof Communities has maintained a relationship with the Hutterites since that time.

In the 1950s the brotherhood was still growing, and in general their young people stayed loyal to their group. In 1954 they had close to 120 farm colonies (Bruderhofs) with almost 10,000 souls (between 50 and 150 souls per colony). Community of goods was practiced everywhere, rather strictly, and seemed to result in thrift and general health, both physical and moral. By and large the customs of old were observed, and this reminded the visitor occasionally of similar Amish attitudes. Although the young people learned English in their schools (on each Bruderhof), they yet spoke exclusively German at home. Since the days of Ehrenpreis (17th century), mission work was abandoned. At their services they read the sermons of old, and did not allow any new ones. The use of farm machinery, cars, telephone, and electric light was accepted, but otherwise they shared very little in modern American civilization. They continued to copy their manuscript books by hand (in fine penmanship). Only the two Chronicles and their hymnbook had been printed, together with Riedemann's Rechenschaft of 1540 and Ehrenpreis' great Sendbrief of 1652.

This article cannot describe in any way the inner life of the Brethren or their external organization; for these purposes compare the following articles: Bruderhof, Community of goods, Ceramics, Folk Arts, Economic History of the Hutterian Brethren, Education — Hutterite, Epistles — Hutterite, as well as articles on leaders such as Hutter, Amon, Riedemann, Walpot, Braidl, Ehrenpreis, and on their books, Article Book, Chronicles, Handbüchlein, Rechenschaft, Liederbuch.

Finally also the following articles should be consulted: Gemeindeordnungen, regarding their regulations and discipline, Marriage, Medicine among the Hutterites, dealing with their barber-surgeons and physicians, Sermons—Hutterite, and naturally also the article Habaner which gives details about those who had turned Catholic in the 18th century.

List of Hutterite Bruderhofs through the 1950s

Table 1: Moravia, 1529-1622

(According to E. Crous, Mennonitisches Lexikon III, 420-422.

For location of the Bruderhofs see the numbers 1-85 on Map 2)

1. Alexowitz (Alecowitz, Olkowitz)
2. Altenmarkt (Zierotin, 1545)
3. Auspitz
4. Austerlitz
5. Bergen (Pergen)
6. Bilowitz (Billowitz, Pillowitz) (1545)
7. Birnbaum
8. Bisenz (Bisentz) (Zierotin, 1545)
9. Bogesch (Bogesitz/Bogenitz)
10. Bohntitz (Bawd tz/Bochtitz-Pochtitz) (1546)
11. Boretitz/Borzetitz (Paraditz) (1545)
12. Budespitz/Butschowitz (Bucovic, Pudespitz) (1536)
13. Budkau (Budkaw)
14. Czermakowitz (Schermankowitz)
15. Damborschitz/Damborzitz (Dämberschitz) (Kaunitz, 1550)
16. Eibenschitz (Lipa)
17. Eihis
18. Frätz/Wratzow (Niary von Bedek, 1547)
19. Frischau (1581)
20. Gobschitz/Gubschitz (1545)
21. Göding (Hodonin) (Lipa, 1545)
22. Gurda/Gurdau
23. Herspitz (Gerspitz)
24. Hosterlitz
25. Hrubschitz (Rupschitz) (1546)
26. Jamnitz
27. Jemeritz (Jemeritz/Jaronowitz)
28. Kanitz
29. Kobily/Kobyli (Kobelitz)
30. Kostl/Kostel (Gostal) (Zierotin)
31. Kreuz (Creutz) (Lipa, 1565)
32. Kromau (Lipa, 1540)
33. Landshut (Zierotin, 1565)
33a. Lettnitz/Letonitz (Lettonitz)
34. Lundenburg (Breclav)
35. Milotitz/Millotitz
36. Mistrin/Mistrin
37. Moskowitz (Maskowitz)
38. Muschau
39. Napagedl (Napajedl) (Zierotin, 1545)
40. Nembschitz/Klein Niemtschitz (east of Auspitz)
41. Nembschitz/Klein Niemtschitz (near Prahlitz) (1562)
42. Nemschau/Niemtschau (Niemtscha) (Kaunitz, 1560)
43. Neudorf near Lundenburg (Zierotin, 1570)
43a. Neudorf, Hungarian-Ostra district (Liechtenstein, 1570)
44. Neumühl (Liechtenstein, 1558)
45. Nikolsburg (Mikulov) (Liechtenstein, Maximilian II, Dietrichstein, 1556)
46. Nikolschitz/Nikoltschitz (Zierotin, 1570)
47. Nusslau (Nuslau) (Zierotin, 1583)
48. Paulowitz/Pawlowitz (Lipa, 1545)
49. Pausram (Zierotin, 1538)
50. Pohrlitz (Zierotin, 1581)
51. Polau/Pollau
52. Polehraditz (Bellerditz, Pettertitz) (1559)
53. Popitz/Poppitz (1537)
54. Pribitz/Przibitz (Zierotin, 1565)
55. Pruschank/Pruschanek
56. Pulgrams/Pulgram (1538)
57. Puslawitz/Bohuslawitz (Postlawitz) (1546)
58. Rackschitz/Rakschitz (Lipa, 1545)
59. Rakowitz (Räkowitz/Rakwitz) (Lipa, 1540)
60. Rampersdorf (Zierotin)
61. Rohatetz
62. Ropitz/Rossitz (Pernstein, Lipa, Zierotin)
63. Saitz (Lipa, 1540)
64. Schaidowitz/Ziadowitz (1553)
65. Schaikowitz (Schaickowitz/Ceikowitz) (1545)
66. Schäkowitz (Schäckowitz/Schakwitz) (Lipa, 1533)
67. (Klein-) Selowitz/K1. Seelowitz
68. Skalitz (Gallitz) (1563)
69. (Klein- or Gross-) Steurowitz
69a. Stigonitz/Stignitz
70. Swatoborschitz/Swatoboritz
71. Swetlau
72. Tannowitz (Abtei Kanitz, Thurn)
73. Taykowitz/Taikowitz
74. Tracht (1558)
75. Tscheitsch/Ceitsch (Schenkhof)
76. Turnitz-Durdenitz
77. Urschitz/Uhrzitz (Kaunitz)
78. Voit(e)lsbrunn (1557)
79. Watzenowitz (Wacenowitz) (Zierotin)
79a. Weisstätten
80. Welka-Hulka (Zierotin, um 1560)
81. Wernslitz (Wemslitz/Weimis(ss)litz)
82. Wessely (1546)
83. Wischenau
84. Wisternitz
85. Wostitz (Thurn, 1567)

Table 2: Slovakia, 1545-1762

(According to E. Crous, Mennonitisches Lexikon III, 423.

For location of the Bruderhofs see the numbers I-XIV on Map 3)

I. Broczko (Protzka; Neutra) (1547)
II. Dejte (Dechtitz; Oberneutra)
III. Dobravoda (Gutenwasser; Oberneutra)
IV. Egbell (Neutra)
V. Farkashida (Farkenschin; Pressburg) (1622)
VI. Holics (Holitsch; Neutra)
VII. Kosolna (Kesselsdorf; Pressburg)
VIII. Kúty (Gätte; Neutra) (1550)
IX. Lévàrd Velky-Levary (Gross-Schützen, Lewär; Pressburg) (1588)
X. Pobudin (Popadin, Popodin; Neutra) (Bakisch de Lák)
XI. Rovenszko (Rabenska; Neutra) (1622)
XII. Soblaho (Soblahov, Zobelhof; Trentschin) (Illés-häzi, 1622)
XIII. Sobotište (Freischütz, Sabatisch; Neutra) (1546)
XIV. Unter Nussdorf (Deutsch-Nussdorf; Pressburg) (1548)

Table 3: Moravia, by manorial estates, 1619-1622

(According to Fr. Hruby, Die Wiedertäufer in Mähren, Leipzig, 1935)

1. Lundenburg-Billowitz: Lundenburg, Altenmarkt, Gostal Ober- and Nieder-Haus), Pillowitz, Rampersdorf
2. Seelowitz: Eibes (auch Meubes), Nikolschitz, Nussla, Pausram, Pribitz, Poherlitz
3. Austerlitz: Austerlitz and Gerspitz
4. Nikolsburg: Nikolsburg and Tracht
5. Steinitz: Dämberschitz
6. Kanitz: Klein-Niemtschitz (Ober- and Unterhaus)
7. Landshut: Landshut
8. Lettonitz: Lettnitz
9. Skalitz: Gallitz
10. Wischenau: Wischnau and Stignitz
11. Tscheikowitz:Schäkowitz (Schaikowitz) and Prutschan
12. Bochtitz: Pochtitz
13. Frischau: Frischau
14. Göding: Göding and Koblitz
15. Mähr. Kromau: Maskowitz and Oleckowitz
16. Milotitz: Wäzenobis
17. Uhritz: Urschitz
18. Wesseli: Wessela
19. Ziadowitz: Schädewitz
20. Ungarisch-Ostra: Neudorf
21. Eisgrub: Neumühl
22. Ober-Tannowitz: Tannewitz
23. Tulleschitz: Schermankowitz
24. Wostitz: (Wostite), Weisstätten
25. Polehraditz: Pellertitz
26. Tawikowitz: Teikowitz

Table 4: Transylvania

1. Alvinc, 1621-1767
2. Kreuz, 1761-1767
3. Stein, 1761-1767

Table 5: Ukraine

1. Vyshenka (1770-1802)
2. Raditcheva (1802-1842)
3. Hutterthal (1842-1857)
4. Hutterdorf (2) (1859-1874)
5. Johannisruh (1864-1877)
6. Sheromet (1868-1874)
7. Neu-Hutterthal or Dabritcha (1866-1875)

Table 6: North Ameria, 1950, by branches (According to J. W. Eaton, "The Hutterite Mental Health Study," Mennonite Quarterly Review 25 (1951): 17-19.

For location of the Bruderhofs see the numbers 1-91 on Maps 5 & 6)

Name & Address of Colony
Yr. Settled
Population in 1950
1. Camrose, Camrose 1949
2. Cayley, Cayley 1937
3. East Cardston, Cardston 1918
4. Ewelme, Macleod 1928
5. Fairview, Ponoka 1949
6. Granum, Granum 1930
7. Holt, Irma 1949
8. Tschetter, Irricana 1948
9. New Rosebud, Crossfield 1944
10. Lakeside, Cranford 1935
11. Beiseker, Beiseker 1926
12. New York, Stirling 1924
13. Pincher Creek, Pincher Creek 1926
14. Pine Hill, Penhold 1948
15. Riverside, Fort Macleod 1933
16. Rosebud, Redland 1918
17. Sandhill, Beiseker 1936
18. Springvale, Rockyford 1918
19. Stahlville, Rockyford 1919
20. Stand Off, Macleod 1918
21. Thompson, Glenwood 1918
22. West Raley, Cardston 1918
23. Willow Creek, Stettler 1949
24. Wilson Siding, Lethbridge 1918
25. Wolf Creek, Stirling 1924
26. Ayers Ranch, Grass Range 1945
27. Deerfield, Danvers 1947
28. King Ranch, Lewistown 1935
29. Spring Creek, Lewistown 1945
30. Big Bend, Woolford 1920
31. Crystal Spring, Magrath 1937
32. Elmspring, Warner 1929
33. Hutterville, Magrath 1932
34. McMillan, Cayley 1937
35. Miami, New Dayton 1924
36. Milford, Raymond 1918
37. New Elmspring, Magrath 1918
38. New Rockport, New Dayton 1932
39. O.K., Raymond --
40. Old Elm, Magrath 1918
41. New Dale, Queenstown 1950
42. Rock Lake, Wrentham 1935
43. Rockport, Magrath 1918
44. Sunnyside, Warner 1935
45. Birch Creek, Valier 1947
46. Miami, Pendroy 1948
47. (New) Milford, Augusta 1945
48. Miller Ranch, Choteau 1949
49. New Rockport, Choteau 1948
50. Rockport, Pendroy 1947
51. Hillside, Sweet Grass 1950
52. Felger, Lethbridge 1924
53. Hofer Brothers, Brocket 1920
54. Monarch, Monarch 1942
55. Stirling Mennonite, Stirling 1944
56. Barrickman, Headingly 1920
57. Blumengard, Plum Coulee 1922
58. Bon Homme, Benard 1918
59. Elm River, Newton Siding 1934
60. Huron, Benara 1918
61. Iberville, Headingly 1919
62. James Valley, Starbuck 1918
63. Lakeside, Headingly 1946
64. Maxwell, Headingly 1918
65. Milltown, Benard 1918
66. New Rosedale, Portage la Prairie 1944
67. Poplar Point, Poplar Point 1938
68. Riverdale, Gladstone 1946
69. Riverside, Arden 1934
70. Rock Lake, Gross Isle 1947
71. Rosedale, Elie 1918
72. Sturgeon Creek, Headingly 1938
73. Sunnyside, Newton Siding 1925
74. Waldheim, Elie 1935
75. Springfield, Vivian 1950
76. Forest River, Fordville 1950
77. Bon Homme, Tabor 1874
78. Glendale, Frankfort 1949
79. Gracevale, Winfred 1948
80. Huron, Huron 1944
81. Jamesville, Utica 1937
82. Maxwell, Scotland 1949
83. Millerdale, Miller 1949
84. New Elm Spring, Ethan 1936
85. Pearl Creek, Iroquois 1949
86. Platte, Academy 1949
87. Riverside, Huron 1949
88. Rockport, Alexandria 1934
89. Rosedale, Mitchell 1945
90. Spink, Frankfort 1945
91. Tschetter, Olivet 1942
92. Colony Farm of the Brethren, Bright 1941
Bruderhof Communities
NEW YORK (State)
Woodcrest, Rifton 1954

Table 7: Summary of Hutterite Population By Census, by Kinship Group and Location, 1950s

South Dakota
Unaffiliated colonies
Total, Kinship Colonies
Total, Convert Colonies and Society of Brothers (est.)
Total No. of Hutterites
South Dakota

Addenda 1955: The above lists and maps correspond to the situation around 1950. From 1950 until early 1955, 14 new kinship colonies were established. The population in these 4 1/2 years increased by more than 1,400 souls to a total of close to 10,000. These new colonies were (according to Rev. Peter Hofer, James Valley):

Dariusleut, Alberta
98. Pibroch, Pibroch
99. Scotford, Fort Saskatchewan
Lehrerleut, Alberta
100. Acadia Valley, Oyen
101. New Milford, Winnifred
102. Rosedale, Etzikom
103. Springside, Duchess
Lehrerleut, Saskatchewan
104. Bench, Shaunavon
105. Cypress, Maple Creek
106. Slade Colony, Tompkins
Lehrerleut, Montana
107. Glacier, Cut Banks
Schmiedeleut, Manitoba
108. Bloomfield, Westbourne
109. Crystal Spring, St. Agathe
110. Oak Bluff, Morris
Schmiedeleut, South Dakota
111. Blumengard, Wecota

The colonies of the Society of Brothers (Paraguay, etc.) had grown in the same period to more than 1,000 souls.

Note for the Maps: Rev. David Decker, Tschetter Colony, South Dakota, Rev. Paul Gross, Pincher Creek Colony, Alberta, Rev. Peter Hofer, James Valley Colony, Manitoba, Rev. Joseph Waldner, Springfield Colony, Manitoba, and Rev. John Würz, Wilson Colony, Alberta, assisted in preparing a list of Hutterite colonies and determining their location. The maps were prepared under the direction of Dr. Joseph W. Eaton, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, Wayne University, Detroit, Michigan, with the assistance of Evelyn Plaut; they were drawn by R. A. Morwood of the Dept. of Geography at Wayne University.

The first exhaustive list of Hutterite Bruderhofs in Europe with locations (concerning Moravia and Slovakia, however) was that prepared by E. Crous and published in 1953 in connection with the article Rabenska in the Mennonitisches Lexikon (Installment 39, pp. 418-23) where two maps were also given, prepared by Dr. Gerhard Wöhlke of the Geographical Institute in Göttingen on the basis of the Austrian Spezialkarte 1:75,000, published 1869-1888 by the K. K. Militärgeographisches Institut. The Crous lists are here reproduced, but new maps were prepared by Dr. Robert Friedmann, two of which are based on the Mennonitisches Lexikon maps. The first two lists contained all known Bruderhofs of the 16th and 17th centuries, without indication as to the date of dissolution. They therefore do not reveal how many were in existence at any one time, although most were in existence in the "Golden Age" ca. 1590. The only such list is the third one, which names the Bruderhofs in existence in Moravia, 1619-1622, 1622 being the date when all were expelled from the country.

J. Loserth published the first list of Bruderhofs in his Communismus (1894) p. 246. This list he published in Mennonitisches Lexikon (1931) Haushaben, slightly revised, where 88 locations are named. Fr. Hruby published a list of 43 Bruderhofs in existence in Moravia in 1619-1622, in his Wiedertäufer in Mähren (Leipzig, 1935), which is reproduced as list no. 3 above. He reported that a considerable number of Bruderhofs were destroyed in 1605. According to Hruby most of the Bruderhofs were in Czech nationality areas; only 9 of the 43 listed areas were in German nationality areas.

Zieglschmid's list of North American Bruderhofs (Klein-Geschichtsbuch, 677-80) contained only 64, although it was not quite exhaustive. He reported (p. 471) the growth in numbers as follows: 1878 (3), 1900 (10), 1915 (17), 1926 (29), 1944 (57), 1947 (64). Before 1918 all American Bruderhofs were in South Dakota. The first Canadian Bruderhofs were established in Manitoba and Alberta in 1918, when a mass migration occurred. Zieglschmid (p. 472 f.) gave a genealogical chart of the origin of the North American Bruderhofs of the Schmiedeleut and Dariusleut in existence in 1947. -- Robert Friedmann

1990 Update

The Hutterian Brethren practice community of goods, as first established in Moravia in 1529 and re-established by Jakob Hutter in 1533 according to the example of the first church in Jerusalem (Acts 2:44), "And all that believed were together, and had all things in common." The basic beliefs and way of life, including community of goods, are the same today as when the movement began.

In 1990 there were about 353 Hutterite colonies with a population of more than 35,000. They were situated in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Washington, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, England, and Japan.

The Hutterians in Japan began as a small group of Japanese Christians in 1969. They had all things in common and in a worldwide search for other groups living according to the gospel and Acts 2 and 4, their leader, Izeki, visited the Hutterian Brethren. He was baptized at Wilson Siding Bruderhof in 1975 and confirmed as Servant of the Word two years later.

The Hutterians who fled to the United States from Russia in the 1870s and moved to Canada after World War I because of hostility and mistreatment on account of their conscientious objection against military participation, encountered fresh discrimination following the outbreak of World War II and in subsequent years. The Hutterians refused to join any branch of the military forces, but accepted alternative service under civilian jurisdiction.

In 1942 the Alberta legislature passed an act preventing the Hutterites from buying land if the site was closer than 40 miles (65 km) from an existing colony, and the amount of land was limited to not more than 6,400 acres (2600 hectares). In 1960 the law was amended. New colonies were formed in Montana in 1948 and in Saskatchewan in 1952.

In Manitoba attempts were made to introduce restrictive legislation. Fearing restrictions like those in Alberta, a "gentleman's agreement" with the Union of Manitoba Municipalities stipulated the location of no more than one or two colonies per municipality and at least 10 miles (16 km) apart. In 1971 this agreement was terminated.

The Schmiedeleut (Manitoba and Dakota colonies) set up their own mutual insurance in 1980. The other two groups do not insure, but depend upon intercolony mutual aid when a fire or disaster strikes. Sizable donations are given every year to local funds and to the disaster fund of the Mennonite Central Committee. The Dakota colonies formed a health or hospital insurance fund while the Canadian colonies participate in provincial health plans.

Hutterian children attend kindergarten (age 2-5), and elementary school (age 6-16). Normally the colony supplies the building, heating, and the maintenance costs. The local school division and board selects and pays the salary of the teachers, administers the school and, in most cases, pays a small rent for the building. In the past 10 years a number of colonies which have experienced difficulties in acquiring teacher grants have educated their own members as qualified teachers. It is also felt that a colony's own teacher will offset the worldly influence of the outside teacher. In Manitoba the Hutterite English teachers formed an association which provides inservice training sessions geared to the colony teacher's needs.

The children also receive two hours of German instruction daily from their own German teacher. The Dariusleut and Schmiedeleut have German school from October to May, while the Lehrerleut have it from September to June. Training sessions of two to three days per year for German teachers have been held for 10 years in Manitoba and South Dakota. Many of the teachers have replaced the Tyrolean dialect with the use of standard (high) German as the language of instruction.

The Hutterite Education Committee, along with other German teachers, has developed a history course for use in English and German schools. Other materials and new books have been introduced on hymnology, grammar, literature, etc. Many schools have copying and printing machines. A bookstore at James Valley Bruderhof in Manitoba stocks most school and church materials as well as books in English and German. German schools in Manitoba colonies received sizable cultural grants from both federal and provincial governments for the retention of language, printing of cultural or historical books, and training sessions.

John Hofer

2014 Update

The following colonies were members of the Hutterian Brethren in 2014:

Colony Location Leut
Abbey Abbey, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Acadia Oyen, Alberta Lehrerleut
Acadia Carberry, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Acres Eden, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Airport Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Albion Ridge Picture Butte, Alberta Dariusleut
Alix Alix, Alberta Dariusleut
Altona Henderson, Minnesota Undefined
Arm River Lumsden, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Armada Lomond, Alberta Lehrerleut
Arrowwood Blackie, Alberta Dariusleut
Aspenheim Bagot, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Athabasca Athabasca, Alberta Dariusleut
Ayers Ranch Grass Range, Montana Dariusleut
Baildon Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Baker Mac Gregor, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Barrickman Cartier, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Beechy Beechy, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Beiseker Beiseker, Alberta Dariusleut
Belle Plaine Belle Plaine, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Bench Shaunavon, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Bentley Blackfalds, Alberta Dariusleut
Berry Creek Hanna, Alberta Dariusleut
Big Bend Cardston, Alberta Lehrerleut
Big Rose Biggar, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Big Sky Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Big Stone Graceville, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Big Stone Sand Coulee, Montana Lehrerleut
Birch Creek Valier, Montana Lehrerleut
Birch Hills Wanham, Alberta Dariusleut
Birch Meadows Eaglesham, Alberta Dariusleut
Bloomfield Westbourne, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Blooming Prairie Homewood, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Blue Clay Arnaud, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Blue Ridge Mountain View, Alberta Dariusleut
Blue Sky Drumheller, Alberta Dariusleut
Bluegrass Warner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Blumengard Faulkton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Blumengart Plum Coulee, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Bon Homme Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Bon Homme Tabor, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Bone Creek Gull Lake, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Boundary Lane Elkhorn, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Bow City Brooks, Alberta Lehrerleut
Box Elder Maple Creek, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Brant Brant, Alberta Lehrerleut
Brantwood Oakville, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Brentwood Faulkton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Brightstone Lac Du Bonnet, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Britestone Carbon, Alberta Lehrerleut
Broad Valley Arborg, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Brocket Pincher Creek, Alberta Schmiedeleut Group 1
Butte Bracken, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Byemoor Byemoor, Alberta Dariusleut
Cameron Turin, Alberta Dariusleut
Cameron Viborg, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Camrose Camrose, Alberta Dariusleut
Camrose Ledger, Montana Lehrerleut
Camrose Frankfort, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
CanAm Margaret, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Carmangay Carmangay, Alberta Dariusleut
Carmichael Gull Lake, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Cascade MacGregor, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Cascade Sun River, Montana Lehrerleut
Castor Castor, Alberta Lehrerleut
Cayley Cayley, Alberta Dariusleut
Cedar Grove Platte, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Claremont Castlewood, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Clark Raymond, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Clear Lake Claresholm, Alberta Lehrerleut
Clear Spring Kenaston, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Cleardale Cleardale, Alberta Dariusleut
Clearfield Delmont, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Clearview Bassano, Alberta Lehrerleut
Clearview Elm Creek, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Clearwater Balmoral, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Cloverleaf Delia, Alberta Lehrerleut
Cluny Cluny, Alberta Dariusleut
Codessa Eaglesham, Alberta Dariusleut
Collins Iroquois, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Concord Winnipeg, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Cool Spring Minnedosa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Cool Springs Rudyard, Montana Lehrerleut
Copperfield Vauxhall, Alberta Dariusleut
Craigmyle Craigmyle, Alberta Dariusleut
Crystal Spring Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
Crystal Spring Ste. Agathe, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Cypress Cypress River, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Cypress Maple Creek, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Decker Decker, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Deerboine Alexander, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Deerfield Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
Deerfield Lewistown, Montana Dariusleut
Deerfield Ipswich, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Delco New Dayton, Alberta Lehrerleut
Delta Austin, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Dinsmore Dinsmore, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Donalda Donalda, Alberta Dariusleut
Downie Lake Maple Creek, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Duncan Ranch Harlowton, Montana Lehrerleut
Eagle Creek Galata, Montana Lehrerleut
Eagle Creek Asquith, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Ear View Gull Lake, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
East Cardston Cardston, Alberta Dariusleut
East End Havre, Montana Lehrerleut
East Malta Malta, Montana Dariusleut
East Raymond Raymond, Alberta Dariusleut
Eatonia Eatonia, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Elk Creek Augusta, Montana Lehrerleut
Elkwater Irvine, Alberta Dariusleut
Elm River Newton Siding, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Elm Spring Warner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Elmendorf Mountain Lake, Minnesota Undefined
Emerald Gladstone, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Enchant Enchant, Alberta Dariusleut
Erskine Erskine, Alberta Dariusleut
Estuary Leader, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Evergreen Taber, Alberta Lehrerleut
Evergreen Somerset, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Evergreen Faulkton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Ewelme Ft. Macleod, Alberta Dariusleut
Fair Haven Ulm, Montana Lehrerleut
Fairholme Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Fairlane Skiff, Alberta Lehrerleut
Fairview Crossfield, Alberta Dariusleut
Fairview La Moure, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Fairville Bassano, Alberta Lehrerleut
Fairway Douglas, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Ferrybank Ponoka, Alberta Dariusleut
Flat Willow Ranch Roundup, Montana Dariusleut
Fordham Carpenter, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Fords Creek Grass Range, Montana Dariusleut
Forest River Fordville, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Fort Pitt Lloydminister, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Forty Mile Lodge Grass, Montana Dariusleut
Gadsby Stettler, Alberta Dariusleut
Garden Plane Frontier, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Gildford Gildford, Montana Dariusleut
Glacier Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Glendale Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Glendale Frankfort, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Glenway Dominion City, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Glidden Glidden, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Golden Valley Ryegate, Montana Lehrerleut
Golden View Salem, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Golden View Biggar, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Good Hope Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Gracevale Winfred, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Grand Oakville, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Grandview Grand Prairie, Alberta Dariusleut
Grant Enderlin, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Granum Granum, Alberta Dariusleut
Grass Ranch Kimball, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Grass River Glenella, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Grassland Westport, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Grassy Hill Gull Lake, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Green Acres Bassano, Alberta Lehrerleut
Green Acres Wawanesa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Green Leaf Marcelin, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Greenwald Beausejour, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Greenwood Fort Macleod, Alberta Lehrerleut
Greenwood Delmont, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Hairy Hill Hairy Hill, Alberta Dariusleut
Hand Hills Hanna, Alberta Lehrerleut
Hartland Bashaw, Alberta Dariusleut
Hartland Havre, Montana Lehrerleut
Haven Dexter, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Haven Fox Valley, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Heartland Hazelridge, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Heartland Lake Benton, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Hidden Lake Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Hidden Valley Austin, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
High River High River, Alberta Dariusleut
Hillcrest Garden City, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Hillcrest Dundurn, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Hilldale Havre, Montana Lehrerleut
Hillridge Barnwell, Alberta Dariusleut
Hillside Justice, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Hillside Sweetgrass, Montana Lehrerleut
Hillside Doland, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Hillsvale Cut Knife, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Hillview Rosebud, Alberta Dariusleut
Hodgeville Hodgeville, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Holden Holden, Alberta Dariusleut
Holmfield Killarney, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Holt Irma, Alberta Dariusleut
Homewood Starbuck, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Horizon Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Horizon Lowe Farm, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Hughenden Hughenden, Alberta Dariusleut
Huron Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Huron Huron, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Huron Brownlee, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Hutterville Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
Hutterville Stratford, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Huxley Huxley, Alberta Dariusleut
Iberville Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Interlake Teulon, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Iron Creek Bruce, Alberta Dariusleut
James Valley Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Jamesville Utica, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Jenner Jenner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Kamsley Somerset, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Keho Lake Barons, Alberta Dariusleut
Keystone Warren, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Kilby Butte Roundup, Montana Dariusleut
King Ranch Lewiston, Montana Dariusleut
Kings Lake Foremost, Alberta Lehrerleut
Kingsbury Valier, Montana Lehrerleut
Kingsland New Dayton, Alberta Lehrerleut
Kyle Kyle, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Lajord White City, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Lake View Lake Andes, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Lakeside Cranford, Alberta Dariusleut
Lakeside Cartier, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Lakeview Unity, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Lathom Bassano, Alberta Lehrerleut
Leask Leask, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Leedale Rimbey, Alberta Dariusleut
Lismore Clinton, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Little Bow Champion, Alberta Dariusleut
Little Creek Marquette, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Livingstone Lundbreck, Alberta Dariusleut
Lomond Lomond, Alberta Dariusleut
Lone Pine Botha, Alberta Lehrerleut
Long Lake Westport, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Loring Loring, Montana Dariusleut
Lost River Allan, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Lougheed Lougheed, Alberta Dariusleut
MacMillan Cayley, Alberta Lehrerleut
Main Centre Rush Lake, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Mannville Mannville, Alberta Dariusleut
Maple Grove Lauder, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Maple River Fullerton, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Marble Ridge Hodgson, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Marlin Marlin, Washington Dariusleut
Martinsdale Martinsdale, Montana Lehrerleut
Maxwell Cartier, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Maxwell Scotland, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Mayfair Killarney, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Mayfield Etzikom, Alberta Dariusleut
Mayfield Willow Lake, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
McGee Rosetown, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
McMahon MacMahon, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Mialta Vulcan, Alberta Lehrerleut
Miami New Dayton, Alberta Lehrerleut
Miami Morden, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Midland Taber, Alberta Lehrerleut
Midway Conrad, Montana Lehrerleut
Milden Milden, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Milford Raymond, Alberta Lehrerleut
Milford Wolf Creek, Montana Lehrerleut
Millbrook Mitchell, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Miller Choteau, Montana Lehrerleut
Millerdale Miller, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
MillsHof Glenboro, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Milltown Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Miltow Warner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Mixburn Minburn, Alberta Dariusleut
Morinville Morinville, Alberta Dariusleut
Mountain View Strathmore, Alberta Dariusleut
Mountain View Broadview, Montana Lehrerleut
Netley Petersfield, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Neu Muehl Drumheller, Alberta Lehrerleut
Neudorf Crossfield, Alberta Lehrerleut
Neuhof Mountain Lake, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 1
New Elm Spring Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
New Elm Spring Ethan, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
New Miami Conrad, Montana Lehrerleut
New Rockport New Dayton, Alberta Lehrerleut
New Rockport Choteau, Montana Lehrerleut
New Rosedale Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
New York Lethbridge, Alberta Dariusleut
Newdale Milo, Alberta Lehrerleut
Newdale Brandon, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Newdale Elkton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Newell Bassano, Alberta Lehrerleut
Newhaven Argyle, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Newport Claremont, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Norfeld White, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Norquay Oakville, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
North Harlem Harlem, Montana Dariusleut
Northern Breeze Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
O.B. Marwayne, Alberta Dariusleut
O. K. Raymond, Alberta Lehrerleut
Oak Bluff Morris, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Oak Lane Alexandria, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Oak River Oak River, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Oaklane Taber, Alberta Lehrerleut
Oakridge Holland, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Odanah Minnedosa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Old Elm Spring Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
Old Elm Spring Parkston, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Orland Montrose, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Parkland Nanton, Alberta Lehrerleut
Parkview Riding Mountain, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Peace View Farmington, BC Dariusleut
Pearl Creek Iroquois, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pembina Darlingford, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pembrook Ipswich, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pennant Pennant, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Pibroch Westlock, Alberta Dariusleut
Pincher Creek Pincher Creek, Alberta Dariusleut
Pine Creek Austin, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pine Haven Wetaskiwin, Alberta Dariusleut
Pine Hill Red Deer, Alberta Dariusleut
Pineland Piney, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Plain Lake Two Hills, Alberta Dariusleut
Plainview Warner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Plainview Elkhorn, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Plainview Leola, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Platte Platte, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pleasant Valley Clive, Alberta Dariusleut
Pleasant Valley Belt, Montana Lehrerleut
Pleasant Valley Flandreau, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Poinsett Estelline, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Pondera Valier, Montana Lehrerleut
Ponderosa Grassy Lake, Alberta Lehrerleut
Ponteix Ponteix, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Poplar Point Portage La Prairie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Prairie Blossom Stonewall, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Prairie Elk Wolf Point, Montana Dariusleut
Prairie Home Wrentham, Alberta Lehrerleut
Prairie View Sibbald, Alberta Dariusleut
Quill Lake Quill Lake, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Rainbow Innisfail, Alberta Dariusleut
Raymore Raymore, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Red Willow Stettler, Alberta Dariusleut
Red Willow White, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Ribstone Edgerton, Alberta Dariusleut
Ridge Valley Crooked Creek, Alberta Dariusleut
Ridgeland Hussar, Alberta Lehrerleut
Ridgeland Dugald, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Ridgeville Ridgeville, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Rimrock Sunburst, Montana Lehrerleut
River Road Milk River, Alberta Lehrerleut
Riverbend Mossleigh, Alberta Lehrerleut
Riverbend Carberry, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Riverbend Waldheim, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Riverdale Gladstone, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Riverside Ft. Macleod, Alberta Dariusleut
Riverside Arden, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Riverside Huron, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Riverview Chester, Montana Lehrerleut
Riverview Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Rock Lake Coaldale, Alberta Lehrerleut
Rock Lake Grosse Isle, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rockport Magrath, Alberta Lehrerleut
Rockport Pendroy, Montana Lehrerleut
Rockport Alexandria, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Roland White, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rolling Acres Eden, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rosalind Camrose, Alberta Lehrerleut
Rose Glen Hilda, Alberta Lehrerleut
Rose Valley Graysville, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rose Valley Assiniboia, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Rosebank Miami, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rosebud Rockyford, Alberta Dariusleut
Rosedale Etzikom, Alberta Lehrerleut
Rosedale Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Rosedale Mitchell, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Rosetown Rosetown, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Rustic Acres Madison, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Sage Creek Chester, Montana Lehrerleut
Sand Lake Val Marie, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Sandhills Beiseker, Alberta Dariusleut
Schoonover Odessa, Washington Dariusleut
Scotford Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta Dariusleut
Scott Scott, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Seville Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut
Shadow Ranch Champion, Alberta Dariusleut
Shady Lane Wanham, Alberta Dariusleut
Shady Lane Treherne, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Shamrock Bow Island, Alberta Lehrerleut
Shamrock Carpenter, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Shannon Winfred, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Silver Creek Ferintoch, Alberta Dariusleut
Silver Lake Clark, South Dakota Dariusleut
Silver Sage Foremost, Alberta Lehrerleut
Silverwinds Sperling, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Simmie Admiral, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Sky Light Vulcan, Alberta Lehrerleut
Sky View Miami, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Smiley Smiley, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Smoky Lake Smoky Lake, Alberta Dariusleut
Sommerfeld High Bluff, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Souris River Elgin, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
South Bend Alliance, Alberta Lehrerleut
South Peace Farmington, BC Dariusleut
Southland Herbert, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Sovereign Rosetown, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Spink Frankfort, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spokane Reardan, Washington Dariusleut
Spring Creek Walsh, Alberta Dariusleut
Spring Creek Lewistown, Montana Dariusleut
Spring Creek Leola, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spring Hill Neepawa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Spring Lake Arlington, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spring Lake Swift Current, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Spring Point Pincher Creek, Alberta Dariusleut
Spring Prairie Hawley, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spring Ridge Wainwright, Alberta Dariusleut
Spring Side Duchess, Alberta Lehrerleut
Spring Valley Spring Coulee, Alberta Dariusleut
Spring Valley Brandon, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spring Valley Wessington Springs, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Spring View Gem, Alberta Lehrerleut
Spring Water Ruthilda, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Springdale White Sulphur, Montana Lehrerleut
Springfield Anola, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Springfield Kindersley, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Springvale Rockyford, Alberta Dariusleut
Springwater Harlowton, Montana Lehrerleut
Spruce Lane Blanchard, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Sprucewood Brookdale, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Stahl Ritzville, Washington Dariusleut
Stahlville Rockyford, Alberta Dariusleut
Standard Standard, Alberta Lehrerleut
Standoff Ft. Macleod, Alberta Dariusleut
Stanfield Stanfield, Oregon Dariusleut
Star City Star City, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Starbrite Foremost, Alberta Lehrerleut
Starland Drumheller, Alberta Dariusleut
Starland Gibbon, Minnesota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Starlite Starbuck, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Sturgeon Creek Headingley, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Suncrest Castor, Alberta Lehrerleut
Suncrest Tourond, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Sundale Milnor, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Sunny Bend Westlock, Alberta Dariusleut
Sunny Brook Chester, Montana Lehrerleut
Sunny Dale Perdue, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Sunny Site Warner, Alberta Lehrerleut
Sunnyside Newton Siding, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Sunrise Etzikom, Alberta Lehrerleut
Sunset Britton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Sunshine Hussar, Alberta Dariusleut
Surprise Creek Stanford, Montana Dariusleut
Swift Current Swift Current, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Thompson Ft. Macleod, Alberta Dariusleut
Three Hills Three Hills, Alberta Dariusleut
Thunderbird Faulkton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 1
Tofield, Alberta Tofield, Alberta Dariusleut
Tompkins Tompkins, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Treesbank Wawanesa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Trileaf Baldur, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Tschetter Irricana, Alberta Dariusleut
Tschetter Olivet, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Turin Turin, Alberta Dariusleut
Turner Turner, Montana Dariusleut
Twilight Falher, Alberta Lehrerleut
Twilight Neepawa, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Twin Creek Standard, Alberta Lehrerleut
Twin Hills Carter, Montana Lehrerleut
Twin Rivers Manning, Alberta Dariusleut
Upland Artesian, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Valley Centre Biggar, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Valley View Torrington, Alberta Dariusleut
Valley View Swan Lake, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Valleyview Ranch Valley View, Alberta Dariusleut
Vanguard Vanguard, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Vegreville Vegreville, Alberta Dariusleut
Verdant Valley Drumheller, Alberta Lehrerleut
Vermillion Sanford, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Veteran Veteran, Alberta Dariusleut
Viking Viking, Alberta Dariusleut
Waldeck Swift Current, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Waldheim Elie, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Warburg Warburg, Alberta Dariusleut
Warden Warden, Washington Dariusleut
Waterton Hillspring, Alberta Dariusleut
Webb Webb, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Wellwood Ninette, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
West Bench East End, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
West Raley Cardston, Alberta Dariusleut
Westroc Westbourne, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Westwood Britton, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Wheatland Rockyford, Alberta Dariusleut
Wheatland Tower City, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Wheatland Cabri, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
White Lake Nobleford, Alberta Dariusleut
White Rock Rosholt, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Whiteshell River Hills, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Wild Rose Vulcan, Alberta Lehrerleut
Willow Creek Claresholm, Alberta Lehrerleut
Willow Creek Cartwright, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Willow Park Tessier, Saskatchewan Dariusleut
Willowbank Edgeley, North Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Wilson Siding Coaldale, Alberta Dariusleut
Windy Bay Pilot Mound, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Wingham Elm Creek, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 1
Winnifred Medicine Hat, Alberta Lehrerleut
Wintering Hills Hussar, Alberta Dariusleut
Wolf Creek Stirling, Alberta Dariusleut
Wolf Creek Olivet, South Dakota Schmiedeleut Group 2
Wollman Ranch Elgin, North Dakota Dariusleut
Woodland Poplar Point, Manitoba Schmiedeleut Group 2
Wymark Vanguard, Saskatchewan Lehrerleut
Zenith Cut Bank, Montana Lehrerleut

See also Bruderhof, Society of Brothers


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Author(s) Robert Friedmann
John Hofer
Hans Meier
John V. Hinde
Date Published 1989

Cite This Article

MLA style

Friedmann, Robert, John Hofer, Hans Meier and John V. Hinde. "Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1989. Web. 2 Jul 2022.

APA style

Friedmann, Robert, John Hofer, Hans Meier and John V. Hinde. (1989). Hutterian Brethren (Hutterische Brüder). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 2 July 2022, from


Adapted by permission of Herald Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia, from Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, pp. 854-865; vol. 5, pp. 406-409. All rights reserved.

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