Villages (Holländerdörfer)

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Nowhere else have Mennonites developed a distinctive village pattern as did the Prusso-Russian group. To be sure, the Swiss Mennonites surviving as religious refugees in remote areas as pioneers on uncultivated land de­veloped a pattern of settlement known as the Hof. In the Jura Mountains of Switzerland as well as in Alsace-Lorraine and the southern parts of Germany they became owners or renters of large farms and estates (Höfe), on which they established themselves in increasing numbers, developing some of them into small villages and hamlets. Some of the vil­lages still indicate such an origin in the name end­ing in hof or heim. Among them are Spitalhof, Friedelsheim, Gerolsheim, Kriegsheim, Weierhof, Ibersheimerhof, and Kohlhof, all located in the Palatinate and Hesse. These places established and occupied originally by Swiss Mennonite refugees have in many instances grown to sizable villages or towns. Some are still primarily occupied by Men­nonites, while in others the Mennonite population has become a minority. Today they reveal no peculiar Mennonite characteristics in the total pattern of the surrounding communities.

The Swiss Mennonites settling in Poland, Volhynia, and Galicia established some villages. In Poland they lived in Urszulin and Michelsdorf and in Volhynia in Eduardsdorf, Horodyszcze, Waldheim, Kotozufka, etc. These were the Swiss Volhynian Mennonites who later settled near Moundridge, Kansas, and Freeman, South Dakota. The Swiss Galician Men­nonites established the villages of Falkenstein, Einsiedel, Rosenberg, Rosenhof, Kiernica, Horozanna, Ehrenfeld, Dobrovlany, Podusilna, etc. Some of these were not villages in the sense of a closely-knit unit. Even the closed villages were not always built according to a specific pattern. The early Galician villages of Falkenstein, Einsiedel, and Neuhof fol­lowed a specified plan. The others were mostly cluster villages (Haufendörfer). Most of these vil­lages were occupied by the Mennonites for a limited time only. The Hutterite villages are described in the article "Bruderhof." The Swiss and German Men­nonites settling in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and other states as a rule lived on individual farms, fol­lowing the practice of their environment. One ex­ception was Germantown, Pennsylvania, founded in 1683, which was mixed Quaker and Mennonite and soon became a town.

The Mennonites of Prussia and Russia developed a unique pattern of villages during their coloniza­tion and settlement efforts, which was also trans­planted to Manitoba, Mexico, and Paraguay. This pattern, although of Germanic background, includes some features based on the religio-cultural back­ground and development of the Prusso-Russian Mennonites.

During the first half of the 16th century Dutch religious refugees settled at the mouth of the Vistula River in Prussia, mostly under Polish authorities. Their villages became known as "Hollanderdörfer" or "Hollandereien." These settlements established by a certain type of settlers under certain contracts with the lords and administered in a certain way became the nucleus or background of the Mennonite villages of Prussia, Poland, and Russia, which were later transplanted to Manitoba. They differed from the type prevailing along the Vistula River. The medieval colony village of the Vistula area was as a rule organized by a "locator" who functioned as Schulze (mayor), through whom a lease was obtained from the royal owners of the land, and who invited settlers from everywhere to till the land on long-term leases. The locator did not pay rent and his office was hereditary. Such a village was estab­lished in accordance with the "German right."

The villages established according to the "Dutch right" ("Holländisch Weis' und Gebrauch") func­tioned on a different basis. A group of settlers en­tered an agreement with the landowner. The lease agreements differed. The lease was usually for 40 years. The office of the Schulze was not hereditary. He was elected from the village community and had no special privileges; the government was demo­cratic. Originally the occupants of these "Dutch" villages were actually primarily Dutch by back­ground and to a large extent Mennonites. Later on the term "Holländerei" came to mean nothing more than a village and land rented and established on the basis of the "Dutch right." The occupants of such a "Dutch" village could come from any part of Europe and belong to any creed.

By 1772 there were some 400 Holländerdörfer established in the Vistula region, but not nearly all were occupied by Mennonites or by Dutch settlers. Felicia Szper (p. 110) lists for 1676 the following villages as "Holländische Hufen" in the two Werders of Marienburg occupied by Dutch Mennonites: Platenhof, Tiegenhagen, Tiegerweide, Reimerswalde, Orlofferfeld, Pletzendorf, Orloff, Pietzgendorf, and Petershagenerfeld.

Horst Penner lists for the 18th century the following villages with a predominantly Mennonite population: Altebabke, Altendorf, Beyershorst, Blumenort, Einlage, Freienhuben, Glabitsch, Gross-Plehnendorf, Gross-Walddorf, Halbstadt, Herrenhagen, Heubuden, Klein Mausdorf, Kozelicke, Ladekopp, Marienau, Neuendorf, Neunhuben, Or­loff, Orlofferfelde, Petershagen, Pietzkendorf, Poppau, Pordenau, Reimerswalde, Rosenort, Rückenau, Scharfenberg, Schönhorst, Schönsee, Schmerblock, Schönau, Tiege, Tiegenhagen, Tiegerweide, and Wotzlaff.

The villages located on the Vistula were also char­acterized by being established in swampy areas that had to be drained. Ditches and canals led to the river at the elevated end of the land. Homes were located along the street, which at times fol­lowed the windings of the river. Villages established according to the old "German right" did not have the residence, barn, and shed under one roof, as did the Dutch villages, in which the barn was directly connected with the residence and the shed was at­tached to the barn, the whole in some cases forming a triangle. At some places the dwelling had an ad­dition for the retired parents called Endenkammer. The porch added to this structure in many cases was of Prussian and not Dutch background.

In some instances the land of each farmer ad­joined his yard. This would indicate that the pattern was related to the "Hufendörfer" practice. E. K. Francis classifies the Russian Mennonite pat­tern as a "Gewanndorf," which is characterized by the rotation of crops according to an established pat­tern. This was at times the case in Russia and also Manitoba. However, the Gewanndorf is a cluster of homes and farms, which the Mennonite village never was. The latter always followed a very sym­metrical design, the houses being located in a straight line at regular intervals on one side or on both sides of the street. This village therefore more nearly resembled a Hufendorf. However, it devel­oped peculiarities of its own. For this reason it is best to identify this type of village simply as Holländerdorf.

The Holländerdörfer established in the swampy regions of the Vistula Delta by Dutch Mennonites became the pattern not only for other settlers in that area, but were transplanted to entirely new and non-swampy locations in Poland and Russia. Natur­ally the environment somewhat modified the village pattern and practices. The low countries of the Netherlands and the Vistula areas were exchanged for the steppes of the Ukraine, where there was at times too little rainfall. Although the location of the villages was often chosen along rivers, such as the Dnieper or the Molotschna, the geographic and climatic conditions differed considerably. Hardly any dams had to be built to prevent flooding. The crops differed somewhat. The need for summer fal­low made it necessary at times to adhere to an agreed-upon communal pattern of crop rotation.

The great genius and promoter of the uniform establishment of villages was Johann Cornies, who as chairman of the Agricultural Association introduced some rigid rules for the layout of villages, exact location of each building in the vil­lage, the construction of the buildings, the planting of the shade trees and orchards in the yards, the maintenance of the village street, the location of the school, etc. During the first half of the 19th century a significant feature of the Russian Mennonite vil­lage pattern was the communal pasture for all cat­tle, sheep, and horses. As a rule, the village consist­ed of a wide unimproved main street with 20 to 40 homes and farmyards on each side. The land of the individual farmer at times adjoined his yard. This was not always the case; if the land surrounding the village was not all of the same quality, it was par­celed out to give all the farmers equal shares of both the better and the poorer land. The farm usually consisted of approximately 160 acres. The commu­nity had a cowherd who in the early morning drove the cattle and other animals through the village to the community pasture. The village generally had a corral at one end where the horses not needed for farm labor were kept overnight. In the morning they joined the herd. During the hot noon hours the cattle rested at the village pond, creek, or river. The cowherd was usually a native Russian and lived near the corral.

The older villages as a rule consisted of farmers with full-sized farms (Vollwirte) who had originally purchased the land, some owners of half-size farms, and some "Anwohner". The Anwohner lived in a suburb of the village, which had yards and homes for people without land (see Landless). They were as a rule the landless younger generation working for the farmers or in small in­dustry. They were also the candidates for the estab­lishment of a new settlement whenever money and land for this purpose became available. The estab­lishment of new settlements and villages gradually became the responsibility of the Mennonite authori­ties of the mother settlement. Some of these settle­ments consisted of only a few villages, while others had nearly as many as the Molotschna settlement, viz., 58 villages. With slight modifications these vil­lages were patterned after those of the mother settle­ments in the Ukraine. In the early days of the settle­ment the buildings consisted of a frame of lumber and walls of adobe brick, with a roof of straw and later of shingles. As the settlers became more pros­perous they replaced the early buildings with brick structures having a tile or tin roof. The architec­tural pattern of the house, residence, barn, and shed as a rule remained the same (see Architecture).

The administration of the villages and settlements was similar to that in Prussia, i.e., according to the "Dutch right." The Schulze and other members of the village assembly (Schulteboat) were elected by the voters of the village. Usually the village was administratively a part of the total Mennonite set­tlement which had an Oberschulze as the mayor. During the early 19th century the Mennon­ite settlers were not responsible to the local Russian authorities but to the Fürsorgekomitee estab­lished by the Russian government to supervise and administer all foreign settlements in Russia. Toward the end of the past century, the Mennonite administrations became responsible to their local Russian ad­ministrations (see Government Among Mennonites of Russia).

With few modifications this pattern of village settlement and administration was transplanted to Manitoba by the Old Colony (Chortitza), Fürsten­land, and Bergthal Mennonites. The more progres­sive Bergthal and Kleine Gemeinde groups on the East Reserve provided a disintegrating element when they realized that living on one's own farm had some advantages over the traditional village pattern. Hence many villages were abandoned. The transfer of some of the Bergthal Mennonites to the West Reserve introduced this influence also among the Old Colony and Fürstenland Mennonites. This and the matter of self-administration versus the accept­ance of the municipality system and the parochial versus public school system became the vital issues that caused numerous schisms and the ultimate emigra­tion of the more conservative element among the Old Colony, Sommerfeld, and Bergthal Mennonites to Mexico and Paraguay after World Wars I and II. At the turn of the century the Manitoba Mennonites established daughter settlements in the areas of Hague and Swift Current, Saskatchewan. Here too, as in Mexico, Menno in the Chaco, and Villarrica in Para­guay, they established villages on the old pattern of Prussia and Russia. Lack of some building mate­rials and adjustment to the Latin-American environ­ment have caused some slight deviations, but basi­cally the layout, architecture, and administration of the village have been maintained.

A very interesting element in the Mennonite prac­tice of establishing villages in various parts of the world is the naming of these villages. As is evident from the village names of the Marienburg Werder, the names were German. The reason for the choice of German names by Dutch settlers may have been that they dealt with authorities and lords who spoke either German or Polish. Some of these German names such as Orloff (although originally very like­ly Slavic) and Tiege were transplanted to the Ukraine. However, because of the multiplicity of villages established in Russia, most of the names originated there. In the early decades the names were primarily German. Toward the end of the past century they received at times an official Rus­sian name while the settlers themselves gave them German names with a very strong poetic flavor. At the beginning of the 20th century, Russian village names (or even numbers) were used. During the anti-German feeling of World War I many German names were replaced by Russian names. As a result of World War II practically all the names were made Russian.

It was in Russia that the practice of using the same names for villages or daughter settlements flourished, like the repetition of names of grand­parents, uncles, and aunts in a newly established family. Certain of these names in the daughter settlements of Russia, Canada, and South America were particularly popular. New combinations ap­peared. The popularity of names containing "Blume," "Frieden," "Rose," "Schön," or "Wald" reveals that the hard-working Mennonite farmers liked to give their villages poetic names. A new element was added in Russia when they began to name their vil­lages after the czars. Many appendices were added to names such as Alexander and Nicholas (Nikolai). High officials were memorialized in names like Köppental, Konteniusfeld, and Hahnsau. In some in­stances the villages were named for the Russian noble from whom the land was purchased for the establishment of a daughter settlement.

The Manitoba Mennonites, who were primarily of the Chortitza or Old Colony background in Rus­sia, used a considerable number of names of the vil­lages from which they came, including some found in the Molotschna settlement. It is here that old forms are used to create new names through new combinations. Hardly an English name appears in the 110 villages established in the West and East Reserves. Sometimes the same names are used in both Reserves. The Manitoba names were trans­planted to the Swift Current and Hague settlements in Saskatchewan and to the settlements in Mexico and Paraguay. Some of the same names are used in the three (Manitoba, Swift Current, and Durango) settlements of Mexico. It is likely that the village assembly decided on the name. If the majority of the settlers came from one village, they simply agreed to use the same old name. At times the pre­fix Neu (new) was used, e.g., Neu-Schönwiese or Neu-Bergthal.

Some of the Mennonites of the Molotschna settle­ment who came to the prairie states in and after 1874 made an attempt to perpetuate the village pat­tern of Russia and Prussia. The Krimmer Mennonite Brethren established the village Gnadenau at Marion, Kansas, and the Alexanderwohl con­gregation settled originally in seven villages north of Newton. Also the conservative Kleine Gemeinde members of Jansen, Nebraska, settled in villages. But aside from these hardly any attempts were made to establish villages. The reason for this may be that the Molotschna Mennonites, being more progressive, were inclined to recognize and adopt the good practices of the new country. Although they had asked to have compact areas set aside in order to be able to establish their traditional settlements, they were not granted this privilege. The East and West Reserves were the Canadian answer to this request for the Old Colony Mennonites. As a rule the Men­nonites in the prairie states had to be satisfied with the opportunity to purchase alternate sections of land along the railroads such as the Santa Fe and the Burlington. This made it difficult for them to establish compact settlements, and even more so to realize the old traditional village pattern with self-government. The few villages actually established soon disintegrated. However, driving along High­way 15 from Newton to Lehigh or Hillsboro, one can still see remnants of the villages of the Alexan­derwohl community near Goessel. To be sure, there are Mennonite towns such as Goessel, Lehigh, Hills­boro, Moundridge, and Elbing in Kansas; Meno in Oklahoma; Henderson and Jansen in Nebraska; Mountain Lake in Minnesota; and Freeman in South Dakota; but they were not established accord­ing to the traditional pattern and cannot really be classified as Holländerdörfer. They are typical American towns of the prairie states.

Below is a list of Mennonite vil­lages established in Prussia, Russia, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Paraguay. This constitutes the first attempt to list in alphabetical order all Mennonite villages of Prusso-Russian back­ground that could be classified as Holländerdör­fer. Only the major Prussian villages of the Marien­burg Werder are listed. Various sources were used, some of which conflicted. The list makes, therefore, no claim to completeness or to full accuracy. No attempt has been made to state which villages are still in existence and which have disappeared. The major point is to show how large a number of vil­lages was established and how frequently the names were repeated by pioneers who generation after gen­eration continued their journeys as "pilgrims and strangers."

Not all of the later villages in Russia that were given Russian names are listed. Numerous villages in Russia have doubtless been destroyed and very few are at the present occupied by Mennonites. Of the more than 100 Mennonite villages established on the East and West Reserves of Manitoba, only a small number have survived. This is the case particularly on the East Reserve. The traditional vil­lage life continues with a minimum of disturbance from the outside among the Old Colony Mennonites of Mexico and in some of the settlements in Para­guay.

The following list indicates how often the names were repeated in the various settlements. Only those that appear more than five times are listed.

Frequency of Names Village Name(s)
13 Chortitza
11 Blumenort, Grünfeld, Orloff, Reinfeld, Schönau
9 Gnadenfeld, Gnadenthal, Hochfeld, Schönthal, Rosenort, Rosenfeld
8 Kleefeld, Neuanlage, Nikolaifeld, Reinland, Rosen­thal, Schönfeld
7 Blumenhof, Blumenthal, Grünweide, Grünthal, Halbstadt, Neuhoffnung, Neuhorst, Rosenhof, Schonwiese, Silberfeld, Waldheim
6 Alexandrovka, Blumenfeld, Friedensfeld, Hamburg (Hamberg), Hochstadt, Lichtfelde, Neuendorf, Nikolayevka, Osterwick
5 Altona (Altenau), Bergthal, Blumstein, Kronsthal, Landskrone, Lindenau, Reinthal, Rosengart, Rudnerweide, Sommerfeld, Tiege
Mennonite Village Names (Holländerdörfer) In Prussia, Russia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Paraguay (this is a nearly complete list)
Village Name Settlement
Adelsheim (Dolinovka) Chortitza
Ak Metchet Central Asia
Aktatch Terek
Alexanderfeld (Grishevka) Kuban
Alexanderkron(e) Molotschna, Slavgorod
Alexandertal Molotschna, Fürstenland, Alt-Samara
Alexanderwohl Molotschna
Alexandrovka Memrik, Terek, Slavgorod, Omsk, Kuzmitsky, Davlekanovo
Alexeyevka Ignatyevo, Omsk
Alexeyfeld Slavgorod
Alfneu Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Aliesova Orenburg
Altenau (Altona) Prussia, Molotschna, Zagradovka, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba)
Ananyevka Slavgorod
Andreasfeld Ukraine 1870, single village
Andreyevka see Gnadenthal
Anna Sadovaya
Anneskoye Naumenko
Arrival Suvorovka
Auhagen Neuland (Paraguay)
Baragan Crimea
Belo Berezevo Amur
Berezovka-Udrak Davlekanovo
Berezovka Slavgorod
Bergfeld East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Bergthal Bergthal, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice)
Blumenfeld Borozenko, Brazol, Kansas, Nepluyevka, Davlekanovo, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Blumengart Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Blumenheirn Brazol, Hague (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Blumenhof Borozenko, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Blumenort Molotschna, Kansas, Slavgorod, Amur, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Nebraska, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Blumenstein (Blumstein) Prussia, Molotschna, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Blumenthal West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice), Memrik, Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Bodanovka Amur
Bogomazov Neu-Samara
Borissopol Arkadak
Borissovka Pavlodar
Brunnenthal Menno (Paraguay)
Burwalde (Baburka) Prussia, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Central (Zentral) Friesland (Paraguay)
Choroshoye Slavgorod
Chortitz(a) Chortitza (twice), Baratov, Orenburg, Slavgorod, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Hague (Saskatchewan), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Neuland (Paraguay), Bergthal (Paraguay)
Deyevka Orenburg
Dmitrovka Arkadak
Dobrovka Orenburg
Dolinovka Orenburg, Slavgorod
Domninskoye Pavlodar
Donskoye Neu-Samara
Ebenfeld (Rovnopol) Borozenko, Slavgorod, Pavlodar, East Reserve (Manitoba)
Edenberg West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin
Edenthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Eichenbach Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Eichenfeld (Dubovka) Millerovo, Amur
Eichengrund West Reserve (Manitoba)
Eichenthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Eigengrund East Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Eigenhof East Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Einlage (Kitchkas) Chortitza, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Ekaterinovka Miloradovka, Slavgorod
Elenovka Naumenko, Millerovo
Elisabettal Molotschna
Emmathal Kansas
Eugenfeld single village near Alexandrovsk, Ukraine
Felsenbach Borozenko
Felsenthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Feodorovka Orenburg
Fernheim Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Filadelfia Fernheim (Paraguay)
Fischau Prussia, Molotschna
Franzfeld (Varvarovka) Millerovo
Franzthal Molotschna
Fresenheim Am Trakt
Friedensdorf Molotschna
Friedensfeld Slavgorod, Omsk, Miropol, Amur, Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Friedensheim Neuland (Paraguay), Volendam (Paraguay)
Friedensruh Molotschna, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Friedrichstal Bergthal, East Reserve (Manitoba)
Fürstenau Prussia, Molotschna
Fürstenwerder Prussia, Molotschna, Volendam (Paraguay)
Gelbbrunn Menno (Paraguay)
Georgstal Fürstenland
Gerhardsthal Tchornoglas
Gnadenfeld Molotschna, Auli-Ata, Slavgorod, Amur, Kansas, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Gnadenheim Molotschna, Slavgorod, Volendam (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Gnadenthal Molotschna, Baratov, Auli-Ata, Alt-Samara, Kansas, West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Gortchakovo Davlekanovo
Greenfarm West Reserve (Manitoba)
Grigoryevka Naumenko, Slavgorod
Gronau Neuland (Paraguay)
Grossweide Prussia, Molotschna, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Neuland (Paraguay), Friesland (Paraguay)
Grossfürstental Suvorovka
Grotsfeld (Krotovka) Alt-Samara
Grünewald Volendam (Paraguay)
Grünfeld Shlachtin, Baratov, Amur, Kansas, East Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), (twice), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Grünland Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Grünthal East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Grünweide West Reserve (Manitoba)
Hahnsau Am Trakt
Halbstadt Prussia, Molotschna, Slavgorod, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Neuland (Paraguay)
Hamburg (Hamberg) Molotschna, Borozenko, Omsk, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Heimstätte Neuland (Paraguay)
Heuboden Prussia, Bergthal, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Nebraska, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Hierschau Molotschna
Hildesheim Volendam (Paraguay)
Hochfeld Millerovo, Kansas, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Bergthal (Paraguay)
Hochstadt Slavgorod, East Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Hochtal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Hoffnungsau Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Hoffnungsfeld West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Hoffnungsort Borozenko
Hoffnungsthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Hohenau Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Hohendorf Am Trakt, Auli-Ata
Ignatyevo Ignatyevo
Insel Chortitza Chortitza
Ivangorod Millerovo
Ivanovka Slavgorod, Omsk
Kalinovo Memrik
Kamenka Orenburg
Kameshevoye Orenburg
Kameshlak Terek
Kamenets Neu-Samara
Kantserovka Orenburg
Karaguy Orenburg
Karambash Davlekanovo
Karasan Crimea
Karathal Slavgorod
Karlsruhe Fernheim (Paraguay)
Karpovka Memrik
Kirchheim Volendam (Paraguay)
Kitchkas Orenburg
Kleefeld Molotschna, Slavgorod, Amur, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Kleinstädt West Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Klippenfeld Molotschna
Klubnikovo Orenburg
Koltan Neu-Samara
Kondratyevka Borrissovo
Konteniusfeld Molotschna
Konstantinovka Pavlodar
Köppental Am Trakt, Au
Korneyevka Memrik
Kornishheim Pavlodar
Kotlyarevka Memrik
Krasnovka Alt-Samara
Krassikovo Neu-Samara
Kronsfeld Shlachtin, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Kronsgarten (Kronsgart) Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba)
Kronsthal (Kolinsk) Chortitza, Neu-Samara, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin
Kubanka Orenburg
Kulikovo Davlekanovo
Kuterla Neu-Samara
Ladekopp Prussia, Molotschna
Landskron(e) Molotschna, Slavgorod, East Reserve (Manitoba), Fernheim (Paraguay), Friesland (Paraguay)
Laubenheim Menno (Paraguay)
Lavarov Suvorovka
Leonidovka Ignatyevo, Arkadak
Lichtenau Molotschna, East Reserve (Manitoba), Neuland (Paraguay)
Lichtfelde (Lichterfelde) Prussia, Molotschna, Slavgorod, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay), Volendam (Paraguay)
Lidyevka Arkadak
Liebenau Prussia, Molotschna
Liebental (Lyubimovka) Alt-Samara
Lindenau Prussia, Molotschna, Am Trakt, West Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Lyessovka Memrik
Lyubomirovka Borrissovo
Loshkarevo Olgino
Lugovsk Neu-Samara
Lustigstal Crimea
Lystanderhoh Am Trakt
Margenau Molotschna, Omsk
Marianovka (Maryanovka) Memrik, Terek, Arkadak
Mariawohl Molotschna
Marienthal (Maryevka) Molotschna, Alt-Samara, Volendam (Paraguay)
Markovka Slavgorod
Maslyanovka Omsk
Medenthal Am Trakt
Memrik Memrik, Amur
Michailovka Memrik
Michailsburg Fürstenland
Miloradovka Miloradovka, Pavlodar
Miropol Olgino
Montanay Crimea
Morgenthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Müdelburg Terek
Münsterberg Molotschna
Muntau Prussia, Molotschna
Muravyovka Alt-Samara
Nadarovka Pavlodar
Natashino Pavlodar
Neuanlage Nebraska, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Neu-Chortitza Baratov (see Chortitza)
Neuenburg (Malashovka) Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Neuendorf (Neudorf) Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Neuheim Baratov, Neuland (Paraguay)
Neuhof Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Neuhoffnung (Nadezhdino) Alt-Samara, West Reserve (Manitoba), East Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Neuhorst Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Neuland (Paraguay)
Neukirch Molotschna
Neumöln Menno (Paraguay)
Neurecht Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Neustädt Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico)
New York Ignatyevo, Amur
Nikolaidorf Molotschna, Slavgorod
Nikolaifeld Zagradovka, Au, Borrissovo, Suvorovka, Slavgorod, Omsk, Millerovo, Neuland (Paraguay)
Nikolaithal Borozenko
Nikolayevka Memrik, Ignatyevo, Orenburg, Terek, Trubetskoye, Slavgorod
Nordthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Novo-Stepnoye Samoylovka
Olgafeld Fürstenland, Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Olgino Olgino, Pavlodar
Orbelyanovka Tempelhof
Orechov Amur
Orloff (Ohrloff, Orlovka, Orlovo) Prussia, Molotschna, Am Trakt, Alt-Samara, Zagradovka, Au, Memrik, Slavgorod, Omsk, Fernheim (Paraguay)
Ostenfelde Am Trakt
Osterwick Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Ostheim Terek
Pastwa Prussia, Molotschna, East Reserve (Manitoba)
Paulsheim Molotschna
Pessotchnoye Bezenchuk
Petersdorf (Nadezhdovka) Millerovo
Petershagen Prussia, Molotschna
Petrovka Naumenko, Orenburg
Pleshanovo Neu-Samara
Podolsk Neu-Samara
Pordenau Prussia, Molotschna
Prangenau Prussia, Molotschna
Pretoria Orenburg, Terek
Pribrezhnoye Amur
Protessovo Slavgorod
Putchkovo Omsk
Rayevka Pavlodar
Rebrovka Pavlodar
Reichenbach East Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Reinfeld (Rheinfeld) Pavlodar, Millerovo, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Amur
Reinland Prussia, West Reserve (Manitoba), Shlachtin, Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice), Menno (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Reinthal Chortitza, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Rio Verde Menno (Paraguay)
Rodnitchnoye Orenburg
Rohrbach Terek
Romanovka Au, Ignatyevo, Orenburg, Olgino
Rosenbach Fürstenland, Swift Current (Saskatchewan)
Rosenberg Volendam (Paraguay)
Rosenfeld (Tchistopol) Slavgorod, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Nebraska, Shlachtin, Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Bergthal (Paraguay)
Rosengart (Novoslobodka) Chortitza, Neu-Rosengart, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Rosenheim Davlekanovo, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Rosenhof Brazol, Slavgorod, Nebraska, West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Rosenort Prussia, Molotschna, Nebraska, West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay), Volendam (Paraguay)
Rosenthal (Kantserovka) Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Nebraska, Amur, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Rosenwald Slavgorod, Omsk, West Reserve (Manitoba)
Rovnopol see Ebenfeld
Rozovka Minusinsk
Rückenau Prussia, Friesland (Paraguay)
Rudnerweide Prussia, Molotschna, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Ryskovo Samoylovka
Samoylovka Samoylovka
Sandhorst Neuland (Paraguay)
Saratova Slavgorod
Sarona Crimea
Schanzenberg East Reserve (Manitoba)
Schanzenfeld West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Schönau Prussia, Molotschna, Alt-Samara, Slavgorod, Minusinsk, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Schönbrunn Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Schöndorf Borozenko, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Schöneberg (Smolyanaya) Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba)
Schönfeld (Krasnopol) Brazol, Bergthal, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Schönhorst (Vodyanaya) Prussia, Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba)
Schönwiese Chortitza, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Swift Current (Saskatchewan), Menno (Paraguay), Fernheim (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Schönsee Prussia, Molotschna, Zagradovka, East Reserve (Manitoba), Slavgorod, Amur, Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Schönthal Bergthal, East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Slavgorod, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico) (twice), Durango (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Neuland (Paraguay)
Schönwalde Volendam (Paraguay)
Sergeyevka Fürstenland, Slavgorod
Shestakovo Samoylovka
Shumanovka Amur
Silberfeld East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Durango (Mexico), Bergthal (Paraguay), Slavgorod, Amur
Silberthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Smolyanovka Omsk
Soborovka Pavlodar
Sofiyevka Pavlodar
Sommerfeld East Reserve (Manitoba), West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Sparrau Prussia, Molotschna
Spat Crimea
Springfeld (Springfield) Kansas, Swift Current (Saskatchewan)
Springstein Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Springthal Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Steinau (Starozavodskoye) Borozenko, Nepluyevka
Steinbach Borozenko, East Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Steinfeld (Kamenopol) Molotschna, Shlachtin, Neuland (Paraguay)
Steinreich Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Stepanovka Orenburg
Strassberg East Reserve (Manitoba), Neuland (Paraguay)
Sulak Terek
Suvorovka Orenburg, Slavgorod
Talheim Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Talma Terek
Taranovka Terek
Tatyanovka Slavgorod
Tcherno-Ozernoye Orenburg
Tchernov Slavgorod
Tcheryevka Slavgorod
Tchukreyevka Omsk
Tchistopol Pavlodar
Tempelhof Tempelhof
Thalbach Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Tiefenbrunn Volendam (Paraguay)
Tiege Prussia, Molotschna, Zagradovka, Slavgorod, Neuland (Paraguay)
Tiegenhagen Prussia, Molotschna
Tiegerweide Prussia, Molotschna, Omsk
Tukulchak Crimea
Valuyevka Am Trakt
Vassilyevka Naumenko
Vladimirovka Arkadak
Vollwerk East Reserve (Manitoba), Menno (Paraguay)
Volbyevka Trubetskoye
Vyazemskoye Arkadak
Waldeck Memrik
Waldheim Molotschna, West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Friesland (Paraguay), Volendam (Paraguay), Sommerfeld (Paraguay)
Waldhof Neuland (Paraguay)
Waldhorst Volendam (Paraguay)
Waldreich Cuauhtemoc (Mexico)
Waldsruh Fernheim (Paraguay), Volendam (Paraguay)
Wanderloh Terek
Weidefeld (Weidenfeld) West Reserve (Manitoba), Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay), Bergthal (Paraguay)
Wernersdorf Prussia, Molotschna
Wiesenfeld single village in Ukraine, Slavgorod, Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Fernheim (Paraguay)
Wiesenheim Cuauhtemoc (Mexico), Menno (Paraguay)
Wohldemfürst Kuban
Wüstenfelde Fernheim (Paraguay)
Yurgino Amur
Yurmankey Davlekanovo
Zabangagul Orenburg
Zelenoye Orenburg
Zentral (see Central)

The total number of villages of Prusso-Russian Mennonite settlements following the pattern of the Holländerdörfer is 769. The largest number was located in Russia. The total number of the alphabetical list of "Mennonite Village Names" is 327. The total number of villages including those duplicated in this list is 773. On one hand, this is not a complete list of villages established (the total would probably approach 1,000). On the other hand, not all villages are in existence any more and by far not all villages in existence are occupied by Mennonites today. Nevertheless, this study illustrates a very significant phase of the spread of Mennonites and the socio-economic pattern of their life with a unique religious and cultural background.

Settlement Number of Villages Year of Founding
Amur, Siberia 20 1927
Alt-Samara (Alexandertal) 8 1861
Am Trakt, Samara 10 1853
Arkadak, Saratov 7 1910
Auli-Ata, Central Asia 6 1889
Baratov, Ukraine 2 1879
Barnaul, see Slavgorod
Bergthal, Ukraine 5 1836
Bezenchuk, Samara 1 1897
Borozenko, Ukraine 7 1865
Borrissovo, Ukraine 3 1892
Brazol (Schönfeld) Ukraine 4 1868
Chortitza, Ukraine 18 1789
Crimea, Ukraine 25 1862
Davlekanovo, Ufa 5 1894
Fürstenland, Ukraine 6 1864
Ignatyevo, Ukraine 7 1889
Kansas, Alexanderwohl 8 1874
Kuban, Caucasus 2 1863
Kuzmitsky, Ukraine 1 18??
Manitoba, East Reserve 54 1874
Manitoba, West Reserve 56 1875
Memrik, Ukraine 10 1885
Mexico, Cuauhtemoc 96 1926
Mexico, Durango 16 1927
Millerovo, Don area 5 19??
Miloradovka, Ukraine 2 1889
Minusinsk, Siberia 2 1913
Miropol, Ukraine 1 1867
Molotschna, Ukraine 56 1804
Naumenko, Ukraine 4 1890
Nebraska, Jansen, U.S.A. 7 1874
Nepluyevka, Ukraine 2 1870
Neu-Rosengart, Ukraine 2 1878
Neu-Samara, Samara 12 1890
Olgino, Caucasus 4 1895
Omsk, Siberia 11 1899
Orenburg (Deyevka) 23 1894
Paraguay, Fernheim 21 1930
Paraguay, Friesland 9 1937
Paraguay, Menno 26 1928
Paraguay, Neuland 24 1947
Paraguay, Volendam 16 1947
Paraguay, Villarrica, Bergthal 7 1948
Paraguay, Villarrica, Sommerfeld 9 1948
Pavlodar, Siberia 13 19??
Prussia, Marienburg Werder 16??
Rovnopol, Samara 1 1903
Sadovaya, Voronezh 1 1909
Samoylovka, Ukraine 4 1888
Saskatchewan, Hague 17 1894
Saskatchewan, Swift Current 15 1905
Shlachtin, Ukraine 2 1874
Slavgorod (Barnaul), Siberia 58 1909
Suvorovka, Caucasas 4 1894
Terek, Caucasus 13 1901
Tempelhof, Caucasus 2 1868
Tchornoglas, Ukraine 1 1860
Trubetskoye, Ukraine 2 1904
Yazekovo (Nikolaipol), Ukraine 8 1869
Zagradovka, Ukraine 5 1871
Zentral, Voronezh 1 1909
Total 769


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Additional Information

For a more comprehensive listing of Mennonite villages in Russia, please consult the following list compiled by Tim Janzen:

A listing of Mennonite villages in West Prussia has been compiled by Glenn H. Penner:

Author(s) Cornelius Krahn
Date Published 1959

Cite This Article

MLA style

Krahn, Cornelius. "Villages (Holländerdörfer)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1959. Web. 26 Sep 2023.

APA style

Krahn, Cornelius. (1959). Villages (Holländerdörfer). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 26 September 2023, from


Adapted by permission of Herald Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia, from Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 821-827. All rights reserved.

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