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The total Mennonite immigration to South America according to Fretz has been ca. 11,000:
 
The total Mennonite immigration to South America according to Fretz has been ca. 11,000:
 
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<strong>Mennonite Migrations to South America 1926-1951 </strong>
 
<strong>Mennonite Migrations to South America 1926-1951 </strong>
  
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="migrations">  <tr> <th> From</th> <th colspan="9">To Paraguay</th> <th>Total</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1926</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1930</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1931</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1932</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1934</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1947</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1948</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1950</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1951</strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Canada</td> <td> <div align="right">1765</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1765</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Russia</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Germany)</td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1975</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2445</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">85</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">15</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6020</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via China</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">378</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">378</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Holland)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">329</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">329</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Poland</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">123</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">123</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">8615</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td colspan="9"> <div align="center"><strong>To Brazil </strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Russia</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Germany)</td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1100</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via China)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td colspan="9"> <div align="center"><strong>To Uruguay </strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Germany</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">467</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">430</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">897</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via [[Denmark|Denmark]])</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">284</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">284</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1181</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Total</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1765</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>2600</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>123</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>378</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>100</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>2304</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>3196</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>85</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>445</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>10996</strong></div> </td> </tr>  </table>  
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="migrations">  <tr> <th> From</th> <th colspan="9">To Paraguay</th> <th>Total</th> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1926</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1930</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1931</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1932</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1934</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1947</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1948</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1950</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1951</strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Canada</td> <td> <div align="right">1765</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1765</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Russia</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Germany)</td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1975</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2445</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">85</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">15</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6020</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via China</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">378</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">378</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Holland)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">329</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">329</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Poland</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">123</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">123</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">8615</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td colspan="9"> <div align="center"><strong>To Brazil </strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Russia</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via Germany)</td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1100</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via China)</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td colspan="9"> <div align="center"><strong>To Uruguay </strong></div> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Germany</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">467</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">430</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">897</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   (via [[Denmark|Denmark]])</td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">284</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">284</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">Total</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1181</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Total</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>1765</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>2600</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>123</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>378</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>100</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>2304</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>3196</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>85</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>445</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>10996</strong></div> </td> </tr>  </table>  
 
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A certain amount of return migration took place from [[Paraguay|Paraguay]] to [[Canada|Canada]] from the Sommerfeld colonies—[[Menno Colony (Alto Paraguay Department, Paraguay)|Menno]] (1926-1930), [[Bergthal Colony (Caaguazú Department, Paraguay)|Bergthal]], and [[Sommerfeld Colony (Caaguazú Department, Paraguay)|Sommerfeld]] (1948-1950), but this ceased. On the other hand, a substantial emigration from the refugee colonies in Paraguay took place and was still going on in the 1950s. From Paraguay some 800 moved to Canada, and about 150 to [[Germany|Germany]]. About 100 also moved from Brazil to Canada.
 
A certain amount of return migration took place from [[Paraguay|Paraguay]] to [[Canada|Canada]] from the Sommerfeld colonies—[[Menno Colony (Alto Paraguay Department, Paraguay)|Menno]] (1926-1930), [[Bergthal Colony (Caaguazú Department, Paraguay)|Bergthal]], and [[Sommerfeld Colony (Caaguazú Department, Paraguay)|Sommerfeld]] (1948-1950), but this ceased. On the other hand, a substantial emigration from the refugee colonies in Paraguay took place and was still going on in the 1950s. From Paraguay some 800 moved to Canada, and about 150 to [[Germany|Germany]]. About 100 also moved from Brazil to Canada.
  
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Mennonites, [[Amish|Amish]], and Brethren in Christ in South America in 1986 ranged from (1) the religiously conservative and culturally isolated to (2) middle class professionals integrated into larger society to (3) those suffering due to their work for social justice. Immigrant Mennonite communities were still obvious subcultures in terms of language, church polity, the arts, and occupations. However, third-generation immigrants were showing signs of integration with the larger society through pursuit of higher education, employment choices, and more relationship with indigenous churches.
 
Mennonites, [[Amish|Amish]], and Brethren in Christ in South America in 1986 ranged from (1) the religiously conservative and culturally isolated to (2) middle class professionals integrated into larger society to (3) those suffering due to their work for social justice. Immigrant Mennonite communities were still obvious subcultures in terms of language, church polity, the arts, and occupations. However, third-generation immigrants were showing signs of integration with the larger society through pursuit of higher education, employment choices, and more relationship with indigenous churches.
 
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<strong>Organized Mennonite Bodies in South America 1986: (To sort the table click on a heading)</strong>
 
<strong>Organized Mennonite Bodies in South America 1986: (To sort the table click on a heading)</strong>
  
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="organizations">   
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="organizations">   
 
<tr> <th>Organized Bodies</th> <th>Membership (1986 unless noted)</th> </tr>  
 
<tr> <th>Organized Bodies</th> <th>Membership (1986 unless noted)</th> </tr>  
<tr> <td><strong>ARGENTINA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Church</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Argentina|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Argentina]] (Argentine Evan. Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1516</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Iglesia Evangelica Unida (United Evan. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">62</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BOLIVIA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">ca. 5800</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden ([[Bergthal Mennonites|Bergthaler Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">185</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Boliviana|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Boliviana]] (Bolivian Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">90</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mision Evangelica Menonita (Evan. Menn. Miss.)</td> <td> <div align="right">48</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Reinlaender Mennoniten Gemeinde (Reinlaender Mennonites)</td> <td> <div align="right">380</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde ([[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfelder Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">618</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BRAZIL </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil|Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil]] (Assoc. of the Menn. Br. Churches of Brazil)</td> <td> <div align="right">1790</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Menonitas do Brasil |Associação das Igrejas Menonitas do Brasil]] (Assoc. of the Menn. Churches of Brazil)</td> <td> <div align="right">719</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Aliança Evangélica Menonita, Brazil|Associação Evangélica Menonita]] (Evan. Menn. Assoc.)</td> <td> <div align="right">895</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil|Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil]] (Brazilian Conv. of the Menn. Br. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1600</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>COLOMBIA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesias Hermanos Menonitas de Colombia|Asociación de Iglesias Hermanos Menonitas]] (Assoc. of Menn. Br. Churches) (1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">2000</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Colombia |Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Colombia]] (Evan. Menn. Ch.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">890</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ECUADOR </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mision [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Ecuatoriana|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita del Ecuador]] (Menn. Miss. in Ecuador</td> <td> <div align="right">80</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PARAGUAY </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">1249</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship|Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship]]</td> <td> <div align="right">71</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden (Bergthaler Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">780</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Chulupí|Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Chulupí]] (Chulupi Evan. Conv.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>  [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de los Hermanos Lenguas | Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de los Hermanos Lenguas]] (Lengua Evan. Cony.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de las Indigenas, Paraguay|Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de las Indigenas]] (United Evan. Conv.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Unidas, Paraguay |Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Unidas]] (United Evan. Menn. Churches)</td> <td> <div align="right">500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención Evangélica de Iglesias Paraguayas Hermanos Menonitas |Convención Evangélica de Iglesias Paraguayas Hermanos Menonitas]] (Evan. Conv. of Menn. Br.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1520</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">359</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Gemeinde (Evan. Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Asociación Caritativa de los Hermanos Menonitas del Paraguay |Konferenz der Mennonitischen Brüdergemeinden]] von Paraguay (Conf. of the Menn. Br. Churches of P.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">2300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mennonite Christian Brotherhood</td> <td> <div align="right">114</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde ([[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfeld Mennonites]].)</td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de los Pastores de las Iglesias Mennonitas del Paraguay|Vereinigung der Mennonitengemeinden von Paraguay]] (Assoc. of Menn. Churches in Paraguay)</td> <td> <div align="right">4947</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>TRINIDAD &amp; TOBAGO</strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Mennonite Church of Trinidad and Tobago|Mennonite Church of Trinidad and Tobago]]</td> <td> <div align="right">850</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>URUGUAY </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Menonitas en Uruguay|Convención de las Iglesias Menonitas en Uruguay]] (Uruguayan Menn. Conv.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">.216</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Consejo de las Congregaciónes de los Hermanos Menonitas, Uruguay |Consejo de las Congregaciónes de los Hermanos Menonitas]] (Council of Menn. Br. Congs.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">170</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Konferenz der Mennonitengemeinden in Uruguay |Konferenz der Mennonitengemeinden in Uruguay]] (Conf. of Mennonites in Uruguay)</td> <td> <div align="right">521</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>VENEZUELA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Concilio de las Iglesias Evangélicas Menonitas en Venezuela|Concilio de las Iglesias Evangélicas Menonitas en Venezuela]] (Council of Evan. Menn. Churches in V.)</td> <td> <div align="right">121</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Other programs and missions (not incl. those relating to organized bodies)</strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BRAZIL</strong>: [[Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (CGC)|Church of God in Christ, Mennonite]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>CHILE</strong>: [[Mennonite Board of Missions (Mennonite Church)|Mennonite Board of Missions]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ECUADOR</strong>: [[Europäisches Mennonitisches Evangelisationskomitee|Europäisches Mennonitisches Evangelisationskomitee]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PARAGUAY</strong>: [[Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church|Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church]], [[Evangelical Mennonite Conference (Kleine Gemeinde)|Evangelical Mennonite Conference]] Board of Missions</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PERU</strong>: [[Mennonite Board of Missions (Mennonite Church)|Mennonite Board of Missions]], Mennonite Brethren Mission./Services</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>VENEZUELA</strong>: [[Fellowship of Evangelical Churches|Evangelical Mennonite Church]] Commission on Overseas Missions</td> <td> </td> </tr>  </table> The [[Mennonite Central Committee (International)|Mennonite Central Committee ]] (MCC) assisted some of the first immigrants to settle in [[Paraguay|Paraguay]], Uruguay, and [[Brazil|Brazil]]. As the colonies became economically self-sufficient and as the indigenous churches became established, North American Mennonites via MCC shifted from supporting immigrant colonies to joining them in service ministries. Local Mennonite conferences now operated social assistance programs in Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and [[Argentina|Argentina]]. [[Internationale Mennonitische Organisation|Internationale Mennonitische Organisation]] (IMO) of Europe assisted South American Mennonites in service ministries, especially in Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
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<tr> <td><strong>ARGENTINA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Church</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Argentina|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Argentina]] (Argentine Evan. Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1516</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Iglesia Evangelica Unida (United Evan. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">62</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BOLIVIA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">ca. 5800</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden ([[Bergthal Mennonites|Bergthaler Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">185</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Boliviana|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Boliviana]] (Bolivian Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">90</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mision Evangelica Menonita (Evan. Menn. Miss.)</td> <td> <div align="right">48</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Reinlaender Mennoniten Gemeinde (Reinlaender Mennonites)</td> <td> <div align="right">380</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde ([[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfelder Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">618</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BRAZIL </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil|Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil]] (Assoc. of the Menn. Br. Churches of Brazil)</td> <td> <div align="right">1790</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Menonitas do Brasil |Associação das Igrejas Menonitas do Brasil]] (Assoc. of the Menn. Churches of Brazil)</td> <td> <div align="right">719</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Aliança Evangélica Menonita, Brazil|Associação Evangélica Menonita]] (Evan. Menn. Assoc.)</td> <td> <div align="right">895</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil|Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil]] (Brazilian Conv. of the Menn. Br. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1600</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>COLOMBIA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesias Hermanos Menonitas de Colombia|Asociación de Iglesias Hermanos Menonitas]] (Assoc. of Menn. Br. Churches) (1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">2000</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Colombia |Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Colombia]] (Evan. Menn. Ch.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">890</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ECUADOR </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mision [[Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Ecuatoriana|Iglesia Evangélica Menonita del Ecuador]] (Menn. Miss. in Ecuador</td> <td> <div align="right">80</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PARAGUAY </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden ([[Old Colony Mennonites|Old Colony Mennonites]])</td> <td> <div align="right">1249</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship|Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship]]</td> <td> <div align="right">71</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden (Bergthaler Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">780</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Chulupí|Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Chulupí]] (Chulupi Evan. Conv.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>  [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de los Hermanos Lenguas | Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de los Hermanos Lenguas]] (Lengua Evan. Cony.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de las Indigenas, Paraguay|Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de las Indigenas]] (United Evan. Conv.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Unidas, Paraguay |Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Unidas]] (United Evan. Menn. Churches)</td> <td> <div align="right">500</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención Evangélica de Iglesias Paraguayas Hermanos Menonitas |Convención Evangélica de Iglesias Paraguayas Hermanos Menonitas]] (Evan. Conv. of Menn. Br.)</td> <td> <div align="right">1520</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">359</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Evangelische Mennonitische Gemeinde (Evan. Menn. Ch.)</td> <td> <div align="right">200</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Asociación Caritativa de los Hermanos Menonitas del Paraguay |Konferenz der Mennonitischen Brüdergemeinden]] von Paraguay (Conf. of the Menn. Br. Churches of P.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">2300</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Mennonite Christian Brotherhood</td> <td> <div align="right">114</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde ([[Sommerfeld Mennonites|Sommerfeld Mennonites]].)</td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de los Pastores de las Iglesias Mennonitas del Paraguay|Vereinigung der Mennonitengemeinden von Paraguay]] (Assoc. of Menn. Churches in Paraguay)</td> <td> <div align="right">4947</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>TRINIDAD &amp; TOBAGO</strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Mennonite Church of Trinidad and Tobago|Mennonite Church of Trinidad and Tobago]]</td> <td> <div align="right">850</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>URUGUAY </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Convención de las Iglesias Menonitas en Uruguay|Convención de las Iglesias Menonitas en Uruguay]] (Uruguayan Menn. Conv.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">.216</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Consejo de las Congregaciónes de los Hermanos Menonitas, Uruguay |Consejo de las Congregaciónes de los Hermanos Menonitas]] (Council of Menn. Br. Congs.)(1987)</td> <td> <div align="right">170</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Konferenz der Mennonitengemeinden in Uruguay |Konferenz der Mennonitengemeinden in Uruguay]] (Conf. of Mennonites in Uruguay)</td> <td> <div align="right">521</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>VENEZUELA </strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>   [[Concilio de las Iglesias Evangélicas Menonitas en Venezuela|Concilio de las Iglesias Evangélicas Menonitas en Venezuela]] (Council of Evan. Menn. Churches in V.)</td> <td> <div align="right">121</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Other programs and missions (not incl. those relating to organized bodies)</strong></td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>BRAZIL</strong>: [[Church of God in Christ, Mennonite (CGC)|Church of God in Christ, Mennonite]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>CHILE</strong>: [[Mennonite Board of Missions (Mennonite Church)|Mennonite Board of Missions]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ECUADOR</strong>: [[Europäisches Mennonitisches Evangelisationskomitee|Europäisches Mennonitisches Evangelisationskomitee]]</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PARAGUAY</strong>: [[Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church|Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church]], [[Evangelical Mennonite Conference (Kleine Gemeinde)|Evangelical Mennonite Conference]] Board of Missions</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>PERU</strong>: [[Mennonite Board of Missions (Mennonite Church)|Mennonite Board of Missions]], Mennonite Brethren Mission./Services</td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>VENEZUELA</strong>: [[Fellowship of Evangelical Churches|Evangelical Mennonite Church]] Commission on Overseas Missions</td> <td> </td> </tr>  </table>
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</div>
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The [[Mennonite Central Committee (International)|Mennonite Central Committee ]] (MCC) assisted some of the first immigrants to settle in [[Paraguay|Paraguay]], Uruguay, and [[Brazil|Brazil]]. As the colonies became economically self-sufficient and as the indigenous churches became established, North American Mennonites via MCC shifted from supporting immigrant colonies to joining them in service ministries. Local Mennonite conferences now operated social assistance programs in Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and [[Argentina|Argentina]]. [[Internationale Mennonitische Organisation|Internationale Mennonitische Organisation]] (IMO) of Europe assisted South American Mennonites in service ministries, especially in Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
  
 
In 1974, the Mennonite Biblical Seminary moved from [[Montevideo (Uruguay) |Montevideo]] to [[Asunción (Paraguay)|Asunción, Paraguay]], where, renamed Centro Evangelico Menonita de Teologia Asunción (CEMTA), it provided biblical and theological training in both German and Spanish serving the Southern Cone countries. The Instituto e Seminario Bíblico dos Irmãos Menonitas (ISBIM; Mennonite Brethren Seminary and Bible Institute) in [[Curitiba (Paraná, Brazil) |Curitiba (Brazil)]], served both immigrant and indigenous churches, primarily in the Portuguese language. Bible institutes or [[Theological Education by Extension|theological education by extension]] programs operated in most of the countries. The German-speaking Mennonite communities operated their own elementary and secondary schools.
 
In 1974, the Mennonite Biblical Seminary moved from [[Montevideo (Uruguay) |Montevideo]] to [[Asunción (Paraguay)|Asunción, Paraguay]], where, renamed Centro Evangelico Menonita de Teologia Asunción (CEMTA), it provided biblical and theological training in both German and Spanish serving the Southern Cone countries. The Instituto e Seminario Bíblico dos Irmãos Menonitas (ISBIM; Mennonite Brethren Seminary and Bible Institute) in [[Curitiba (Paraná, Brazil) |Curitiba (Brazil)]], served both immigrant and indigenous churches, primarily in the Portuguese language. Bible institutes or [[Theological Education by Extension|theological education by extension]] programs operated in most of the countries. The German-speaking Mennonite communities operated their own elementary and secondary schools.
Line 48: Line 50:
  
 
Brazilian Mennonites hosted the [[Mennonite World Conference|Mennonite World Conference]] general assembly in Curitiba in 1972. In the 1960s and 1970s the [[Congresos Menonitas Latinoamericanos |Congresos Menonitas Latinoamericanos]] promoted continent-wide inter-Mennonite study and fellowship events. Those events discontinued in the 1970s due to distance and diversity, but [[Regional Mennonite Conferences|regional]] consultations for the Southern Cone and the Andean Region countries emerged in the late 1980s. Latin American Mennonites maintained connections with the global Mennonite community and many had family connections in [[Canada|Canada]]. The Latin American churches were providing growing numbers of church and theological leaders to the larger Mennonite church. -- ''Herman Bontrager''
 
Brazilian Mennonites hosted the [[Mennonite World Conference|Mennonite World Conference]] general assembly in Curitiba in 1972. In the 1960s and 1970s the [[Congresos Menonitas Latinoamericanos |Congresos Menonitas Latinoamericanos]] promoted continent-wide inter-Mennonite study and fellowship events. Those events discontinued in the 1970s due to distance and diversity, but [[Regional Mennonite Conferences|regional]] consultations for the Southern Cone and the Andean Region countries emerged in the late 1980s. Latin American Mennonites maintained connections with the global Mennonite community and many had family connections in [[Canada|Canada]]. The Latin American churches were providing growing numbers of church and theological leaders to the larger Mennonite church. -- ''Herman Bontrager''
 
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<div align="center">
 
<strong>Mennonites and Brethren in Christ in South America, 1986 (compiled by Herman Bontrager): (To sort the table click on a heading)</strong>
 
<strong>Mennonites and Brethren in Christ in South America, 1986 (compiled by Herman Bontrager): (To sort the table click on a heading)</strong>
  
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="mennonites">  <tr> <th>Country</th> <th>Total Members</th> <th> Indigenous<strong>Members </strong></th> <th><strong>Immigrant Members<sup>[[1]]</sup></strong></th> <th>Immigrant Population<sup>[[1]]</sup></th> <th>Groups,</th> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>[[Argentina|Argentina]] </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">1,816</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,516</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">300</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Bolivia </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">6,297</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6,197 </div> </td> <td> <div align="right">17,688</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Brazil </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">4,992</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,407</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,585</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">5</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Chile<sup>[[2]]</sup></strong></td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Colombia </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">2,633</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,633</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Ecuador </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">84</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">84</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Paraguay </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">14,950</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,186</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">9,764</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">22,570</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">15</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Peru </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">65</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">65</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Uruguay </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">971</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">371</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Venezuela </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">256</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">256</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Totals</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>32,064</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>12,618</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>19,446</strong></div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr>  </table>
 
<table align="center" border="1" class="sortable" id="mennonites">  <tr> <th>Country</th> <th>Total Members</th> <th> Indigenous<strong>Members </strong></th> <th><strong>Immigrant Members<sup>[[1]]</sup></strong></th> <th>Immigrant Population<sup>[[1]]</sup></th> <th>Groups,</th> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>[[Argentina|Argentina]] </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">1,816</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">1,516</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">300</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Bolivia </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">6,297</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">100</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6,197 </div> </td> <td> <div align="right">17,688</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">6</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Brazil </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">4,992</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,407</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,585</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">5</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Chile<sup>[[2]]</sup></strong></td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Colombia </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">2,633</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">2,633</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Ecuador </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">84</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">84</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Paraguay </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">14,950</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">5,186</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">9,764</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">22,570</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">15</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Peru </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">65</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">65</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">1</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Uruguay </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">971</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">371</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">600</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Venezuela </strong></td> <td> <div align="right">256</div> </td> <td> <div align="right">256</div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> <td> <div align="right">3</div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Totals</strong></td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>32,064</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>12,618</strong></div> </td> <td> <div align="right"><strong>19,446</strong></div> </td> <td> </td> <td> </td> </tr>  </table>
 
+
</div>
Sources:  
+
'''Sources''':  
  
 
<em>Mennonite World Handbook Supplement</em>. Strasbourg, France, and Lombard, IL: Mennonite World Conference, 1984; Horsch, James E., ed. <em>[[Mennonite Yearbook and Directory|Mennonite Yearbook]] and Directory</em>. Scottdale: [[Mennonite Publishing House (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, USA)|Mennonite Publishing House]](1986-87); Warkentin, Abe. <em>Strangers and Pilgrims. </em>Winnipeg: <em>Die Mennonitische Post, </em>1987.
 
<em>Mennonite World Handbook Supplement</em>. Strasbourg, France, and Lombard, IL: Mennonite World Conference, 1984; Horsch, James E., ed. <em>[[Mennonite Yearbook and Directory|Mennonite Yearbook]] and Directory</em>. Scottdale: [[Mennonite Publishing House (Scottdale, Pennsylvania, USA)|Mennonite Publishing House]](1986-87); Warkentin, Abe. <em>Strangers and Pilgrims. </em>Winnipeg: <em>Die Mennonitische Post, </em>1987.

Revision as of 02:49, 18 October 2013

Contents

1959 Article

The first Mennonites to come to South America were a few individuals from Germany and Russia who came to Brazil before World War I (e.g., a Lichdi from Herrlihof near Augsburg, and a Frederico Arentz from Hamburg, who aided the Mennonite Central Committee in its service to the first Russian Mennonite refugees settling in Brazil in 1930 ff.). Some also came to Argentina. The next to enter South America were Mennonite missionaries from North America. The first was the Mennonite Church (MC) with its mission work in central Argentina (1917) and later in the Argentine Chaco (1943), Brazil (1954 in the state of Sao Paulo, and the same year in the Amazon River region by a private board taken over by the General Board in 1957), and Uruguay (1954 in Montevideo). Both the General Conference Mennonites and the Mennonite Brethren missionaries entered Colombia in 1945, the former in the central part, and the latter in the Choco area on the Pacific Coast. In the same year the Mennonite Brethren Church began a mission in Curitiba, Brazil. The total number of members in all the missions by 1957 was about 1,000 (Argentina 673, Mennonite Church; Colombia about 300, General Conference and Mennonite Brethren; Brazil about 25, Mennonite Church).

The Mennonite colonization in South America has been by three groups: (1) Russian Mennonites to the Paraguayan Chaco from Manitoba and Saskatchewan (Sommerfeld Mennonites in 1926 and in South Paraguay in 1948); (2) refugees from Russia in 1930 to the state of Santa Catharina, Brazil—later displaced completely to the states of Curitiba and Rio Grande do Sul—and the Paraguayan Chaco (Fernheim Colony), a part going later to East Paraguay (Friesland); (3) refugees from Russia in 1948 to Paraguay (Chaco-Neuland, East Paraguay-Volendam); (4) Danzig and Galician Mennonites to Uruguay in 1948-1950 (El Ombu) and 1951 (Gartental) with Delta added in 1955, and a congregation being organized in Montevideo in 1957. About 500 refugees had also finally located in Argentina, largely by transfer from Paraguay. Less than 150 of these were gathered into a Mennonite congregation in Buenos Aires.

In 1957 the total population of the Mennonite colonies in South America was about 16,500, distributed as follows: Paraguay 11,500, Brazil 3,000, Uruguay 1,500, Argentina 500. The number of baptized members was 7,150, distributed as follows: Paraguay 5,000 (GCM 1,560, MB 1,000, EMB 180, Menno 1,360, Sommerfeld 890), Brazil 1,100 (MB 650, GCM 450), Uruguay 900 (GCM 809, MB 91), Argentina 150 (EMB). By Mennonite bodies this gives: GCM-2,900, MB-1,730, EMB-330.

The total Mennonite immigration to South America according to Fretz has been ca. 11,000:

Mennonite Migrations to South America 1926-1951

From To Paraguay Total
 
1926
1930
1931
1932
1934
1947
1948
1950
1951
 
Canada
1765
               
1765
Russia                    
   (via Germany)  
1500
     
1975
2445
85
15
6020
   (via China      
378
         
378
   (via Holland)          
329
     
329
Poland    
123
           
123
                 
Total
8615
 
To Brazil
 
Russia                    
   (via Germany)  
1100
             
1100
   (via China)        
100
       
100
                 
Total
1200
 
To Uruguay
 
Germany            
467
 
430
897
   (via Denmark)            
284
   
284
                 
Total
1181
Total
1765
2600
123
378
100
2304
3196
85
445
10996
 

A certain amount of return migration took place from Paraguay to Canada from the Sommerfeld colonies—Menno (1926-1930), Bergthal, and Sommerfeld (1948-1950), but this ceased. On the other hand, a substantial emigration from the refugee colonies in Paraguay took place and was still going on in the 1950s. From Paraguay some 800 moved to Canada, and about 150 to Germany. About 100 also moved from Brazil to Canada.

The Mennonite Central Committee sponsored the refugee colonies in Paraguay and continued to aid them in various ways in the 1950s. It also sponsored the colonies in Uruguay and was the channel of some aid there. It did not sponsor the colonies in Brazil, which were originally sponsored by the German government.

The MCC also established and maintained three centers in South America: Asunción, Paraguay (1935); Sao Paulo, Brazil (1948); and Montevideo, Uruguay (1948).

The Mennonite Biblical Seminary was established in Montevideo in 1956 under an inter-Mennonite international board, supported by the mission boards of the General Conference Mennonite and Mennonite Church North American conferences. There is also a Mennonite Brethren Bible School in Montevideo, an inter-Mennonite Bible School in Filadelfia (Fernheim Colony), and a Spanish Bible School at Bragado, Argentina.

Two German language Mennonite church papers were published in South America in the 1950s, the Menno-Blatt (founded 1930) by the Fernheim Colony administration at Filadelfia, Paraguay, and Bibel und Pflug (founded 1954) published privately at Witmarsum, Brazil. The first Brazil Mennonite paper, Die Brucke, was published privately at Witmarsum 1932-1937, then for a short time by the Krauel Colony in 1938. The only Spanish language Mennonite periodical in the 1950s was La Voz Menonita, published from 1932-1961 by the Argentine Mennonites (MC). In 1955-1958 a settlement of some 260 souls from Menno and Fernheim, Paraguay, was established near Santa Cruz, Bolivia. -- Harold S. Bender

1990 Update

'

The first 50 years of Mennonite experience in South America took place predominantly in immigrant, German-speaking communities. From the 1950s to the 1980s indigenous churches of Native American and Latino people numbering about 12,300 members in 10 countries took prominence. This indigenous church grew out of North American Mennonite mission effort and the witness of the immigrant Mennonite communities. By 1988 the immigrant communities numbered about 19,000 baptized members and still largely lived in colonies. In 1957 there were about 1,000 indigenous and 7,150 immigrant Mennonite church members in five South American countries.

After 1957 the indigenous churches grew mostly by evangelism while the immigrant communities grew through major migrations from Mexico and Belize along with smaller migrations from Canada and the United States. The immigrants went primarily to Bolivia and Paraguay (in 1986 also to Argentina). In the immigrant colonies established earlier, rapid natural growth was largely offset by return migration to Canada and to Europe. In 1988 there were at least 10 North American Mennonite and Brethren in Christ mission agencies operating in South America. The agencies supported the work of the established churches and in a number of cases expatriate missionaries worked under national leadership. In the 1980s the mission agencies initiated work in Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Chile. At the end of the 1980s a major concern was to find ways for the national churches and mission agencies to work in partnership.

Growing contacts between the indigenous and immigrant streams of Mennonites and the revolutionary political climate in the region painfully highlighted the growing economic gap between the two streams. Prosperous Mennonite colonies on the one hand were deeply involved in international economics through import and export while on the other hand a substantial number of indigenous Mennonites struggled for survival. The disparities raised questions whether a common identity could be forged. At the same time common efforts in mission and service resulted in notable integration of the two streams in some places, e.g., in Uruguay.

Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren in Christ in South America in 1986 ranged from (1) the religiously conservative and culturally isolated to (2) middle class professionals integrated into larger society to (3) those suffering due to their work for social justice. Immigrant Mennonite communities were still obvious subcultures in terms of language, church polity, the arts, and occupations. However, third-generation immigrants were showing signs of integration with the larger society through pursuit of higher education, employment choices, and more relationship with indigenous churches.

Organized Mennonite Bodies in South America 1986: (To sort the table click on a heading)

Organized Bodies Membership (1986 unless noted)
ARGENTINA  
   Altkolonier Mennoniten (Old Colony Mennonites)(1987)
200
   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Church  
   Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Argentina (Argentine Evan. Menn. Ch.)
1516
   Iglesia Evangelica Unida (United Evan. Ch.)
62
BOLIVIA  
   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden (Old Colony Mennonites)
ca. 5800
   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden (Bergthaler Mennonites)
185
   Iglesia Evangélica Menonita Boliviana (Bolivian Menn. Ch.)
90
   Mision Evangelica Menonita (Evan. Menn. Miss.)
48
   Reinlaender Mennoniten Gemeinde (Reinlaender Mennonites)
380
   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde (Sommerfelder Mennonites)
618
BRAZIL  
   Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil (Assoc. of the Menn. Br. Churches of Brazil)
1790
   Associação das Igrejas Menonitas do Brasil (Assoc. of the Menn. Churches of Brazil)
719
   Associação Evangélica Menonita (Evan. Menn. Assoc.)
895
   Associação das Igrejas Irmãos Menonitas do Brasil (Brazilian Conv. of the Menn. Br. Ch.)
1600
COLOMBIA  
   Asociación de Iglesias Hermanos Menonitas (Assoc. of Menn. Br. Churches) (1987)
2000
   Iglesia Evangélica Menonita, Colombia (Evan. Menn. Ch.)(1987)
890
ECUADOR  
   Mision Iglesia Evangélica Menonita del Ecuador (Menn. Miss. in Ecuador
80
PARAGUAY  
   Altkolonier Mennoniten Gemeinden (Old Colony Mennonites)
1249
   Beachy Amish Mennonite Fellowship
71
   Bergthaler Mennonite Gemeinden (Bergthaler Menn. Ch.)
780
   Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Chulupí (Chulupi Evan. Conv.)
1500
   Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de los Hermanos Lenguas (Lengua Evan. Cony.)
1300
   Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas de las Indigenas (United Evan. Conv.)
1500
   Convención de las Iglesias Evangélicas Unidas (United Evan. Menn. Churches)
500
   Convención Evangélica de Iglesias Paraguayas Hermanos Menonitas (Evan. Conv. of Menn. Br.)
1520
   Evangelische Mennonitische Bruderschaft (Evan. Menn. Br. Ch.)
359
   Evangelische Mennonitische Gemeinde (Evan. Menn. Ch.)
200
   Konferenz der Mennonitischen Brüdergemeinden von Paraguay (Conf. of the Menn. Br. Churches of P.)(1987)
2300
   Mennonite Christian Brotherhood
114
   Sommerfelder Mennoniten Gemeinde (Sommerfeld Mennonites.)
600
   Vereinigung der Mennonitengemeinden von Paraguay (Assoc. of Menn. Churches in Paraguay)
4947
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO  
   Mennonite Church of Trinidad and Tobago
850
URUGUAY  
   Convención de las Iglesias Menonitas en Uruguay (Uruguayan Menn. Conv.)(1987)
.216
   Consejo de las Congregaciónes de los Hermanos Menonitas (Council of Menn. Br. Congs.)(1987)
170
   Konferenz der Mennonitengemeinden in Uruguay (Conf. of Mennonites in Uruguay)
521
VENEZUELA  
   Concilio de las Iglesias Evangélicas Menonitas en Venezuela (Council of Evan. Menn. Churches in V.)
121
Other programs and missions (not incl. those relating to organized bodies)  
BRAZIL: Church of God in Christ, Mennonite  
CHILE: Mennonite Board of Missions  
ECUADOR: Europäisches Mennonitisches Evangelisationskomitee  
PARAGUAY: Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church, Evangelical Mennonite Conference Board of Missions  
PERU: Mennonite Board of Missions, Mennonite Brethren Mission./Services  
VENEZUELA: Evangelical Mennonite Church Commission on Overseas Missions  

The Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) assisted some of the first immigrants to settle in Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil. As the colonies became economically self-sufficient and as the indigenous churches became established, North American Mennonites via MCC shifted from supporting immigrant colonies to joining them in service ministries. Local Mennonite conferences now operated social assistance programs in Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and Argentina. Internationale Mennonitische Organisation (IMO) of Europe assisted South American Mennonites in service ministries, especially in Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

In 1974, the Mennonite Biblical Seminary moved from Montevideo to Asunción, Paraguay, where, renamed Centro Evangelico Menonita de Teologia Asunción (CEMTA), it provided biblical and theological training in both German and Spanish serving the Southern Cone countries. The Instituto e Seminario Bíblico dos Irmãos Menonitas (ISBIM; Mennonite Brethren Seminary and Bible Institute) in Curitiba (Brazil), served both immigrant and indigenous churches, primarily in the Portuguese language. Bible institutes or theological education by extension programs operated in most of the countries. The German-speaking Mennonite communities operated their own elementary and secondary schools.

Most of the conferences published church papers in Spanish, Portuguese, or German. The German-language papers, Menno Blatt (Paraguay), and Bibel und Pflug (Brazil), had subscribers in North America and Europe. Die Mennonitsche Post (Steinbach, Manitoba, Canada) served as an important communications link between Kanadier immigrant Mennonites throughout Latin America.

Mennonite ecclesiology and theology have been heavily influenced by conservative evangelical Protestantism. However, Anabaptist emphases on community, discipleship, service, and peace were increasingly prominent as the Latin American Mennonites and Brethren in Christ lived out their faith in the context of economic disparities and social ferment. The churches were known as peace churches both through their service in conflict situations and conscientious objection positions. Worship patterns varied widely, reflecting borrowings from both Pentecostal and European Protestant traditions. Since Vatican II there was some interaction with Roman Catholics, albeit limited.

Brazilian Mennonites hosted the Mennonite World Conference general assembly in Curitiba in 1972. In the 1960s and 1970s the Congresos Menonitas Latinoamericanos promoted continent-wide inter-Mennonite study and fellowship events. Those events discontinued in the 1970s due to distance and diversity, but regional consultations for the Southern Cone and the Andean Region countries emerged in the late 1980s. Latin American Mennonites maintained connections with the global Mennonite community and many had family connections in Canada. The Latin American churches were providing growing numbers of church and theological leaders to the larger Mennonite church. -- Herman Bontrager

Mennonites and Brethren in Christ in South America, 1986 (compiled by Herman Bontrager): (To sort the table click on a heading)

Country Total Members IndigenousMembers  Immigrant Members1 Immigrant Population1 Groups,
Argentina
1,816
1,516
300
600
3
Bolivia
6,297
100
6,197 
17,688
6
Brazil
4,992
2,407
2,585
 
5
Chile2          
Colombia
2,633
2,633
   
3
Ecuador
84
84
   
1
Paraguay
14,950
5,186
9,764
22,570
15
Peru
65
65
   
1
Uruguay
971
371
600
 
3
Venezuela
256
256
   
3
Totals
32,064
12,618
19,446
   

Sources:

Mennonite World Handbook Supplement. Strasbourg, France, and Lombard, IL: Mennonite World Conference, 1984; Horsch, James E., ed. Mennonite Yearbook and Directory. Scottdale: Mennonite Publishing House(1986-87); Warkentin, Abe. Strangers and Pilgrims. Winnipeg: Die Mennonitische Post, 1987.

1Immigrants from Canada, Russia, Poland, Mexico, Belize, and USA, plus their descendants.

2Mennonite Board of Missions and MCC have programs; no local church members.

Bibliography

Fretz, J. W. Pilgrims in Paraguay, The Story of Mennonite Colonization in South America. Scottdale, PA,1953.

Horsch, James E., ed. Mennonite Yearbook and Directory. Scottdale: Mennonite Publishing House (1986-87).

Kraybill, Paul N., ed. Mennonite World Handbook. Lombard, IL: Mennonite World Conference, 1978: 45-48.

Mennonite World Handbook Supplement. Strasbourg, France, and Lombard, IL: Mennonite World Conference, 1984.

Quiring, Walter. Im Schweisse deines Angesichts; ein mennonitisches Bilderbuch; Paraguay, Brasilien, Argentinien, Uruguay, und Mexico. Steinbach, MB, 1953.

Warkentin, Abe. Strangers and Pilgrims. Winnipeg: Die Mennonitische Post, 1987.


Author(s) Harold S. Bender
Herman Bontrager
Date Published 1989


Cite This Article

MLA style

Bender, Harold S. and Herman Bontrager. "South America." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. 1989. Web. 25 Jul 2014. http://gameo.org/index.php?title=South_America&oldid=102708.

APA style

Bender, Harold S. and Herman Bontrager. (1989). South America. Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 25 July 2014, from http://gameo.org/index.php?title=South_America&oldid=102708.




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Adapted by permission of Herald Press, Harrisonburg, Virginia, and Waterloo, Ontario, from Mennonite Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 583-584; vol. 5, pp. 843-846. All rights reserved. For information on ordering the encyclopedia visit the Herald Press website.


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