Enno Ludwig was elevated to the rank of prince 22 April 1654. In 1654 he sent a letter to the emperor protesting against his confusing the Mennonites with revolutionary Anabaptists, and to the imperial court he vouched for their loyalty as subjects and their love of order and peace. Nevertheless he obstinately refused to grant them full recognition in his realm. Using his elevation of rank as a pretext he denied them their former protection. It was without doubt a question of money with him; he hoped to extort from them the 6,000 talers of debt his predecessor had made with the Mennonites. They declared themselves ready to pay the sum if he would release them from the annual protection fee for a definite period, and from the obligation to render the oath by raising their fingers; they requested instead the "Mennonite oath," as it had been granted them by Count Ulrich II. The negotiations dragged on until 1658.
On 9 March 1658, a new letter of protection was prepared for the Mennonites. It recognized the separation of the Uckowallists from the Mennonites, who were known as "Flemish, Frisians, and Huiskoopers". This differentiation is made in all the later letters of protection, the last of which was issued by King Friedrich II. Only the latter group received this letter. It ruled that the Mennonites were to hold their services quietly, but without interference, and that visiting preachers might instruct them in God's Word. This was a definite step forward. The very poor were excused from paying the protection fee, and those without capital should pay "according to our findings." The Mennonites were obligated to report marriages to the local pastor, but the fee was to be determined alone by those to be married. Of great importance is the order to the military authorities at Norden, Leer, and Aurich, forbidding them to draft Mennonites or punish them for refusing to serve. Finally the Mennonites were specifically told that the additional tax required at this time should never again be levied against them or their descendants. At the same time instructions were issued to the courts that the Mennonites - not the Uckowallists - should use an expressly stated formula in place of the oath.
On 29 May 1658, a letter of protection was also given to the Uckowallists. Its content was almost identical with that granted to the Mennonites, except that the Uckowallists were not required to be married in the church or be registered in the church books. They were thus treated more like an independent brotherhood. This favorable treatment, the reason for which is not known, was, however, of short duration.
Enno Ludwig died 4 April 1660 and was succeeded by his younger brother Georg Christian.
Hege, Christian and Christian Neff. Mennonitisches Lexikon. Frankfurt & Weierhof: Hege; Karlsruhe; Schneider, 1913-1967: v. I, 593.
Müller, J. P. Die Mennoniten in Ostfriesland . . . . Emden, 1887.
|Richard D. Thiessen|
|Date Published||April 2007|
Cite This Article
Neff, Christian and Richard D. Thiessen. "Enno Ludwig, Count and Prince of East Friesland (1632-1660)." Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. April 2007. Web. 7 Mar 2014. http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Enno_Ludwig,_Count_and_Prince_of_East_Friesland_(1632-1660)&oldid=91702.
Neff, Christian and Richard D. Thiessen. (April 2007). Enno Ludwig, Count and Prince of East Friesland (1632-1660). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved 7 March 2014, from http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Enno_Ludwig,_Count_and_Prince_of_East_Friesland_(1632-1660)&oldid=91702.
Herald Press website.
©1996-2014 by the Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. All rights reserved.